1) Chemically, why is it necessary for citrate to undergo an isomerization to isocitrate prior to
2)The citric acid cycle (CAC) is activated in the presence of oxygen, but what is the link between
the CAC and oxygen?
A) Oxygen is an allosteric activator for citrate synthase.
B) The presence of O2 in the mitochondrial matrix releases CO2 into the cytosol.
C) The one substrate-level phosphorylation in the CAC can occur in the absence of oxygen.
D) A primary product of the CAC is NADH, the principle electron donor to the O2, the last
electron acceptor in the electron-transport system.
E) The iron-sulfur center requires oxygen to be in the appropriate oxidation state
3)?A) Isocitrate lyase hydrolyzes isocitrate to form malate and acetate; acetate is used to
synthesize fatty acids.
B) Isocitrate lyase hydrolyzes isocitrate to form malate and acetate; acetate is used to
C) One product of isocitrate lyase is succinate, an intermediate in glucose synthesis via the
D) One product of isocitrate lyase is succinate, a potent inhibitor of pyruvate kinase.
E) One product of isocitrate lyase is succinate, an intermediate in steroid synthesis.
38. Although we study the citric acid cycle as the final stage oxidation of carbon from glucose, an
in-depth look at the cycle shows intermediates entering and leaving the cycle from a number of
metabolic pathways. With all of these demands on the cycle, how does it maintain a minimal
level of oxaloacetate (OAA) to allow the cycle to function?
A) OAA can be formed by the condensation of two moles of acetyl CoA and occurs when
the energy charge of the cell is high.
B) The rate of the cycle is increased when the cell has high levels of NADH.
C) Isocitrate dehydrogenase is allosterically inhibited by ADP, which signifies the need for
D) OAA is formed directly via the deamination of glutamate.
E) OAA is synthesized via pyruvate carboxylase in an anapleurotic reaction that occurs
when acetyl CoA is present.
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