1) Identify at least two verses in the Qur?an which speak to the notion of Israaf (extravagance or waste)
Read the artice below.
3) Write a three page reflection essay (12pt. double-spaced) that includes the following:
a) Discuss in one or two paragraphs the two verses you have identified, including
b) Discuss the notion of planned obsolescence as it relates to your society. In other
words, discuss the ways in which israaf manifests in the society of your
permanent residence. Make sure to provide details when discussing your
Planned obsolescence is a business strategy in which the obsolescence (the process of becoming
obsolete?that is, unfashionable or no longer usable) of a product is planned and built into it
from its conception. This is done so that in future the consumer feels a need to purchase new
products and services that the manufacturer brings out as replacements for the old ones.
Consumers sometimes see planned obsolescence as a sinister plot by manufacturers to fleece
them. But Philip Kotler, a marketing guru (see article), says: ?Much so-called planned
obsolescence is the working of the competitive and technological forces in a free society?forces
that lead to ever-improving goods and services.?
A classic case of planned obsolescence was the nylon stocking. The inevitable ?laddering? of
stockings made consumers buy new ones and for years discouraged manufacturers from looking
for a fibre that did not ladder. The garment industry in any case is not inclined to such
innovation. Fashion of any sort is, by definition, deeply committed to built-in obsolescence. Last
year's skirts, for example, are designed to be replaced by this year's new models.
The strategy of planned obsolescence is common in the computer industry too. New software is
often carefully calculated to reduce the value to consumers of the previous version. This is
achieved by making programs upwardly compatible only; in other words, the new versions can
read all the files of the old versions, but not the other way round. Someone holding the old
version can communicate only with others using the old version. It is as if every generation of
children came into the world speaking a completely different language from their parents. While
they could understand their parents' language, their parents could not understand theirs.
The production processes required for such a strategy are illustrated by Intel. This American
semiconductor firm is working on the production of the next generation of PC chips before it has
begun to market the last one.
A strategy of planned obsolescence can backfire. If a manufacturer produces new products to
replace old ones too often, consumer resistance may set in. This has occurred at times in the
computer industry when consumers have been unconvinced that a new wave of replacement
products is giving sufficient extra value for switching to be worth their while.
As the life cycle of products has increased?largely because of their greater technical
excellence?firms have found that they need to plan for those products' obsolescence more
carefully. Take, for instance, the example of the automobile. Its greater durability has made
consumers reluctant to change their models as frequently as they used to. As the useful life of the
car has been extended, manufacturers have focused on shortening its fashionable life. By adding
styling and cosmetic changes to their vehicles, they have subtly attempted to make their older
models look outdated, thus persuading consumers to trade them in for new ones.
Planned obsolescence is obviously not a strategy for the luxury car market. Marques such as
Rolls-Royce rely on propagating the idea that they may (like antiques) one day be worth more
than the price that was first paid for them; Patek Philippe advertises its watches as being
something that the owner merely conserves for the next generation. At the same time as the
useful life of consumer goods becomes shorter, consumers hanker after goods that endure.
Slade, G., ?Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America?, Harvard University
This question was answered on: Sep 18, 2020
Buy this answer for only: $15
This attachment is locked
We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free copy from our tutoring website www.aceyourhomework.com (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)
Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .
About this QuestionSTATUS
Sep 18, 2020EXPERT
GET INSTANT HELP/h4>
We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.
You can also use these solutions:
- As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
- As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
- For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
NEW ASSIGNMENT HELP?
Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround
Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.
WE GUARANTEE, THAT YOUR PAPER WILL BE WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH AND WITHIN YOUR SET DEADLINE.