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[answered] 1. In 1991, the Central Bank of Egypt expanded the base cap


Good evening, in this document there are 12 articles, what is required is critically analyzing the articles by trying to analyze the possible research gaps that these articles have not covered, and try after that to suggest how can these research gaps be covered in future research and how you can add to the existing literature to your topic and add solutions for these research gaps.


the links to the articles are after each article

research gaps are for things that are not in the article and should be or are in the article and are not explained


NOTE: ALL THE 12 ARTICLES RESEARCH GAPS ARE IN 2-3 PAGES NOT EVERY ARTICLE IN A PAGE. ALL IN 2-3 PAGES.


1. In 1991, the Central Bank of Egypt expanded the base capital prerequisites for the managing

 

an account industry opposite hazard weighted resources for 8 percent, along the lines of the

 

Basle Committee on Banking Supervision. The researchers explore the impacts of capital

 

controls on cost of intermediation and productivity.

 

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=903655

 

2. This paper finds that the late monetary emergency has raised vital issues with respect to bank

 

capital. Different change proposition include obliging banks to hold more capital. Be that as it

 

may, surveying these recommendations requires a comprehension of how capital influences

 

bank execution. Existing speculations create clashing expectations in regards to the impact of

 

capital on bank execution amid typical circumstances and have little to say in regards to the

 

impact amid money related emergencies.

 

http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/11/11-22.pdf

 

3. The capital and the money related execution are two critical factors in the managing an

 

account segment. They demonstrate the capacity of banks to accomplish economical

 

advantages and to address systemic stuns. The creator utilized a static board to concentrate

 

experimental ly the relationship amongst capital and money related execution by approximating

 

the capital by the proportion

 

http://businessperspectives.org/journals_free/bbs/2013/BBS_en_2013_04_Aymen.pdf

 

4. This paper adds to the open deliberation on the impact of capital necessities on bank efficiency. We concentrate the connection between capital proportion and bank proficiency for

 

Chinese banks over the period 2004?2009, exploiting the significant administrative changes in

 

capital necessities that happened amid this period to quantify the exogenous effect of an inwrinkle in the capital proportion on banks' cost effectiveness.

 

https://helda.helsinki.fi/bof/bitstream/handle/123456789/8311/172742.pdf?sequence=1

 

5. This paper concentrates the impact of banks' benefiting from banks' Return on Equity (ROE).

 

An open deliberation has risen on the expenses for banks of the expansion in capital

 

necessities under Basel III. We bring exact confirmation on this issue by investigating the

 

impact of various capitalization measures on banks' ROE on a specimen of huge French banks

 

over the period 1993-2012,

 

https://acpr.banquefrance.fr/fileadmin/user_upload/acp/publications/Debats_economiques_et_financiers/201403Does-the-capital-structure-affect-banks-profitability.pdf

 

6. The review was done to set up the effect of least capital necessities on the execution of

 

business banks in Zimbabwe and to investigate the relationship between least capital

 

prerequisites and bank execution.

 

http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jef/papers/Vol6-Issue5/Version-2/H06526068.pdf

 

7. The overall purpose of this study is to check the impact of capital proportions on bank

 

productivity over monetary cycles utilizing information from the US keeping money part

 

spreading over a few financial cycles from the late 1970s to the late budgetary emergency of

 

2008-10. This relationship is probably going to be time-differing and heterogeneous crosswise

 

over banks, contingent upon banks' genuine capital proportions and how these identify with

 

their ideal (i.e., benefit amplifying) capital proportions

 

https://www.cass.city.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/152122/Osborne_Matthew_Capital-andearnings-in-banking-Emerging-Scholars.pdf 8. For the purpose of the paper, it audits the observational proof on the effect of the 1988 Basle

 

Accord. It concentrates on whether the reception of settled least capital prerequisites drove a

 

few banks to keep up higher capital proportions than would somehow have been the situation

 

and whether any expansion in proportions was accomplished by expanding capital or

 

decreasing loaning.

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs_wp1.pdf

 

9. The purpose of this review is to endeavor to look at the effect of expanding capital of business

 

banks working in Jordan by changing of aggregate resources, stores, credit , and net benefit,

 

the outcome demonstrates that there is a critical connection between the expansion in capital,

 

add up to resources, store and advances just, however there is no noteworthy association with

 

net benefit in the total and neighborhood banks

 

http://journal-archieves36.webs.com/447-465.pdf

 

10. This study concentrates on whether the selection of settled least capital necessities drove a

 

few banks to keep up higher capital proportions than would some way or another have been

 

the situation and whether any expansion in proportions was accomplished by expanding capital

 

or diminishing loaning.

 

http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs_wp01.pdf 11 Capital adequacy requirements and bank

 

performance

 

Capital adequacy requirements are one of the main regulatory tools for the banking system.

 

They are expected to perform two main duties. First, their ?risk sharing function? acts as a

 

buffer against losses, which protects depositors and limits the recourse to deposit insurance.

 

Second, they limit the moral hazard issue of shareholders incentive to take on excessive

 

risk in order to maximize share value.

 

A few studies measure the impact of capital ratio levels on bank efficiency. Berger and

 

Bonaccorsi di Patti (2006) study the relation between capital ratios and profit efficiency in

 

the US banking industry over the period 1990?1995. Using the parametric distribution-free

 

approach, they find that higher capital ratios have a negative effect on efficiency Fiordelisi, Marques-Ibanez and Molyneux (2011) study the relation between bank

 

efficiency, risk and capital ratios. Their paper is thus broader than an assessment of the

 

efficiency-impact of capital ratios. They use Granger-causality tests in a GMM dynamic

 

panel framework to examine consider three dimensions of efficiency ? cost efficiency,

 

revenue efficiency, and profit efficiency ? and notably examine reverse causality, both from

 

efficiency to capital and from capital to efficiency. They find that the less efficient banks

 

tend to take on more risk and that better capitalized banks perform better in terms of

 

efficiency. Both of these papers are of relevance for an analysis of the relation between capital and

 

efficiency. However they provide limited evidence on the specific link between capital and

 

cost efficiency, as they also focus on profit efficiency. We would emphasize that cost

 

efficiency and profit efficiency (a broad concept taking account of both cost efficiency and

 

revenue efficiency) are two different concepts ? albeit look-alikes. Berger and Mester

 

(1997) find no positive correlation between cost and profit efficiency. Profit efficiency not

 

only does not account of banks? managerial performance but it is also influenced by market

 

power, which is not directly under the control of management. Cost efficiency can thus be

 

considered a better proxy for managerial performance. Moreover, the literature shows that

 

degradation in cost efficiency has negative implications for financial stability, but we have

 

no evidence on the effect of profit efficiency on financial stability. 12 Bank efficiency in China

 

A vast literature on bank efficiency in China has evolved over the years. Using nonparametric DEA, Chen, Skully and Brown (2005) study the effects of the 1995

 

deregulation of the banking system on the cost efficiency of 43 Chinese banks over the

 

period 1993?2000. They find that efficiency depends on ownership type: large state-owned

 

banks and small joint-stock commercial banks are more efficient than medium-sized jointstock commercial banks1. Large inefficiencies are found in the Chinese banking sector,

 

with mean annual cost efficiency scores ranging from 42.6% to 58.2%.

 

Fu and Heffernan (2007) measure cost efficiency of Chinese banks over the period

 

1985?2002 using the stochastic frontier approach. Their sample includes 14 banks: four

 

state-owned banks and ten joint-stock commercial banks. They provide evidence that jointstock commercial banks are more efficient than state-owned banks. They also find large

 

inefficiencies in the banking sector, with mean efficiency scores ranging from 40% to 52%,

 

depending on the distributional assumptions.

 

Berger, Hasan and Zhou (2009) analyze 38 Chinese banks over the period 1995? 2003 and

 

estimate cost efficiency and profit efficiency using the stochastic frontier approach. The

 

effect of ownership on bank efficiency in China is the main focus of their study. Large

 

state-owned banks appear to be the least efficient group of banks, foreign banks the most

 

1 Although the PBOC had previously published a minimum capital ratio of 8% in the Commercial Banking Law,

 

no details were given as calculation method or definition of components. Moreover, compliance was not

 

enforced. As a consequence, this previous capital legislation was simply ignored by bank managers and

 

regulators. efficient. They obtain mean efficiency scores of 89.7% for cost efficiency and 47.6% for

 

profit efficiency.

 


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