1. There is consensus among scientists that humans are causing the climate to warm. Why might this warming impact biological productivity in the deepest ocean zones? Use the figure below to aid in answering this question.
a) Warming may slow or halt the formation of cold dense water in polar regions, reducing the delivery of carbon dioxide to depth, and slowing aerobic cellular respiration and productivity in deeper zones.
b) Warming may slow or halt the formation of cold dense water in polar regions, reducing the delivery of nutrients to depth, and thereby reducing productivity in deeper zones.
c) Warming may slow or halt the formation of cold dense water in polar regions, reducing the delivery of phytoplankton to depth, and thereby reducing productivity in deeper zones.
d) Warming may slow or halt the formation of cold dense water in polar regions, reducing the delivery of well oxygenated water to depth, and thereby slowing aerobic cellular respiration and productivity in deeper zones.
2. Looking at the map below, predict what type of boundary is present and the resulting features of the boundary at the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
a) Earthquakes; volcanic activity; island chains
b) Fault lines; shallow earthquakes
c) Mid-ocean ridge; Fault lines; creation of new seafloor
d) Mid-ocean ridge; widening of ocean basin; creation of new seafloor
3. Scientists have been studying threats to coral reefs. The figure below shows where threats to reefs have increased (dark shading) and where they have decreased (light shading). Explain the most effective way that scientists could use this information to design a new study aimed at developing reef protections.
a) Scientists could compare environmental conditions in reefs located around Australia that are dark-shaded with those near Florida that are light-shaded to understand how they differ, because those reefs are far enough apart that there will be little overlap in their characteristics and the many differences will be more apparent.
b) Scientists could compare environmental conditions in reefs located around Florida that are dark-shaded with close-by, light-shaded reefs to understand how they differ, because those reefs are more likely to be similar in many ways than reefs that are far apart.
c) Scientists could compare environmental conditions in reefs randomly selected around the world to increase the chance that they differ in important ways.
d) Scientists could compare environmental conditions in reefs indicated in blue randomly selected from around the world to get the most variable set of conditions possible and to make good comparisons.
4. A newly formed volcanic island can trigger which process in an ocean ecosystem?
a) Primary succession
b) Secondary succession
c) Convergent plate boundary
d) Divergent plate boundary.
5. When constructing new buildings, architects and engineers might include ponds, lawn cover, and gravel beds in the design. Why might this type of ground cover be a requirement by a city's water board?
a) It increases desublimation of rainwater.
b) It increases the amount and quality of runoff.
c) It decreases the amount of water that will evaporate.
d) It allows for better absorption and filtration of rainwater.
6. When glaciers melt, water is returned to groundwater storage by what means?
7. An oceanographer discovered new seafloor being formed in the ocean at a divergent fault. The scientist classifies this as a trench. Is the scientist correct or incorrect and why or why not?
a) He is incorrect. Trenches are narrow openings occurring at subduction zones.
b) He is incorrect. Trenches are flat areas at the foot of continental shelves.
c) He is correct. Trenches are ancient volcanoes whose tops have eroded away.
d) He is correct. Trenches are areas between continental shelves and deeper ocean floors.
8. In 2015 in Alaska, an enormous number of walrus females and their calves gathered on a single beach. In the past, the walruses would use sea ice as a place to rest and nurse their calves, but due to human activity and global warming, large amounts of the ice have melted. Explain what consequences could happen to the walruses and their ecosystem in this situation over time.
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