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[answered] 11/10/2016 Assessment 2 - PHIFP2000 Summer 2016 Section 02


I need a 4-6 page paper in which you address a complex ethical dilemma applying various ethical theories to this problem. Philosophical reasoning about human conduct aims first to discover a clear difference between right and wrong and then apply this distinction to specific situations. I have included detailed instructions as well as references that you MUST use throughout this paper. This must be APA format with a reference (works cited page)?


11/10/2016 Assessment 2 ? PHI?FP2000 ? Summer 2016 ? Section 02 ASSESSMENT 2

 

Making A Moral Decision Overview Write 4?6 pages in which you invent a practical circumstance that illuminates differences between the

 

three approaches to normative theory.

 

There may be times in life where doing your duty might cause lasting harm or where caring about

 

people requires breaking the rules.

 

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following

 

course competencies and assessment criteria:

 

Competency 1: Explain the nature of ethical issues.

 

Describe a concrete situation that calls for making an ethical decision.

 

Competency 2: Critically examine the contributions of key thinkers from the history of ethics.

 

Apply traditional theories of normative ethics to a concrete situation.

 

Competency 3: Engage in ethical debate.

 

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to ethical theory.

 

Competency 4: Develop a position on a contemporary ethical issue.

 

Defend a coherent personal conviction about the best foundation for ethical conduct.

 

Competency 5: Communicate effectively in the context of personal and professional moral discourse.

 

Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for

 

professional communities. Competency Map

 

Check Your ProgressUse this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course. Context The three approaches to normative theory?virtue ethics, deontological ethics, and teleological ethics?

 

have unique advantages and disadvantages.

 

Virtue ethics has some obvious benefits. By emphasizing character traits instead of particular actions,

 

this approach encourages us to see ourselves as making progress toward the goal of becoming better,

 

even if we occasionally make mistakes. In this view, it is easy to see how moral education contributes

 

to the development of virtue, by promoting the formation of good habits of thinking and acting. Above

 

all, virtue ethics makes it plain that respect for ourselves and for each other is at the very heart of

 

ethical thought.

 

But there are some difficulties, too. It is not always clear how the commitment to virtue guides conduct

 

in particular circumstances. How, exactly, does who you are entail what you should do? More seriously,

 

if you aim at your own happiness, it might be easy to let that devolve into an egoistic pursuit of your

 

selfish interests, which is bound to clash with other people's virtuous goals for themselves. The success

 

of this approach to ethical theory depends upon our ability to resolve problems of this sort. https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_37222_1&content_id=_3753951_1&mode=reset 1/5 11/10/2016 Assessment 2 ? PHI?FP2000 ? Summer 2016 ? Section 02 Deontological ethics claims to provide perfect certainty about what we should do in every circumstance

 

?there is nothing to calculate or predict? we just do what the rules prescribe. It relieves us of any

 

responsibility for the results of our actions, since those outcomes are not relevant to the moral worth of

 

what we do. Deontologists usually hold that we have a right to demand that other people live up to their

 

duties with respect to us.

 

The nice thing about consequentialism is that it keeps us focused on the fact that what we do really

 

does have consequences for the world as a whole. Since those outcomes can be recognized by

 

everyone, this kind of theory promises to provide a public basis upon which to assess ethical action

 

objectively. In addition, this theory offers some flexibility in making decisions with an eye toward how

 

our actions will turn out in the long run.

 

There are problems, too, of course. Because we cannot simply fall back on formal rules here, the

 

consequentialist approach demands that we calculate the likely effects of our actions with great care.

 

This is not an easy task, since we sometimes cannot predict with any confidence exactly what outcomes

 

will be produced by our actions. In fact, since we do not know for sure what is going to happen, this

 

theory seems to imply that we will not know whether or not we did the right thing until later on, when

 

all of the relevant information has come in.

 

But these features give rise to corresponding difficulties with the deontological approach. Such theories

 

have trouble explaining what we should do about conflicting duties, cases in which our rules do not

 

agree with each other. Nor does this view make it easy to allow for the possibility that some actions are

 

more wrong than others. Most crucially, by ignoring the results of our actions, deontology implies that

 

our actions in obedience to the rules may sometimes have disastrous consequences.

 

In sum:

 

Virtue ethics gives full voice to our intuition that personal growth toward greater moral perfection is a vital aim

 

in life. The choices we make and the actions we perform contribute to who we are.

 

Deontological ethics seems rather rigid in its adherence to strict moral rules, but it nicely captures our sense

 

that what is simply right is right for everyone.

 

Although the practical value of a teleological approach can generate questions, we often rely upon utilitarian

 

considerations as we debate matters of public policy. Questions to Consider To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them

 

with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

 

How do you understand the questions of relativism, a neutral moral understanding, or the imposition of basic

 

and universal human rights for all people? Why do many philosophers believe that there should be some basic

 

rights for all people? And what right would you impose by force, if necessary, to the rest of the world?

 

People who advocate virtue ethics often draw a distinction between what it means to be a virtuous human

 

being and what it means to be virtuous within one of the many roles that we play in our lives (such as parents,

 

employees, employers, soldiers, or politicians). What kinds of virtues and character traits do you believe that all

 

humans should have? What character traits should a politician or a businessperson have, in order to be a

 

virtuous politician or businessperson? Resources Suggested Resources

 

https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_37222_1&content_id=_3753951_1&mode=reset 2/5 11/10/2016 Assessment 2 ? PHI?FP2000 ? Summer 2016 ? Section 02 The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide

 

a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental

 

Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom. Capella Multimedia

 

Click the links provided below to view the following multimedia pieces:

 

Relativism and Virtue. Library Resources

 

The following e?books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:

 

Aristotle, & Henry?Lewes, G. (1890). The ethics of Aristotle: With introductory essay by George Henry Lewes

 

(the Nicomachean ethics) (D. P. Chase, Trans.). London, GBR: Walter Scott Publishing Company.

 

Brabeck, M. M. (Ed.). (2000). Practicing feminist ethics in psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological

 

Association.

 

May, H. (2010). Aristotle's ethics. London, GBR: Continuum International.

 

Stephens, W. O. (2007). Stoic ethics. London, GBR: Continuum International.

 

Epictetus. (1996). The enchiridion, or manual (J. Fieser, Ed., & E. Carter, Trans.). South Bend, IN:

 

Infoomotions, Inc.

 

Babcock, W. S. (1988). Focus on Augustine's ethics: Introduction. Journal of Religious Ethics, 16(1), 3?9.

 

Callahan, J. C. (1995). Reproduction, ethics and the law: Feminist perspectives. Bloomington, IN: Indiana

 

University Press. Course Library Guide

 

A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are

 

encouraged to refer to the resources in the PHI?FP2000 ? Ethics Library Guide to help direct your

 

research. Internet Resources

 

Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently.

 

Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use

 

at the time of course publication.

 

Kemerling, G. (2011). Aristotle: Ethics and the virtues. The Philosophy Pages. Retrieved from

 

http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2s.htm

 

Kemerling, G. (2011). Hellenistic philosophy. The Philosophy Pages. Retrieved from

 

http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2w.htm

 

Kemerling, G. (2011). Medieval philosophy. The Philosophy Pages. Retrieved from

 

http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/3b.htm#morality

 

Gowans, C. (2008, December 9). Moral relativism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from

 

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral?relativism/

 

Hursthouse, R. (2012, March 8). Virtue ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from

 

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics?virtue/

 

Kraut, R. (2014, April 21). Aristotle's ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from

 

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle?ethics/

 

Graver, M. (2013, February 19). Epictetus. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from

 

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epictetus/

 

Tong, R. (2009, May 4). Feminist ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved

 

fromhttp://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism?ethics/

 

Ethics Updates. (2012, February 18). Aristotle and virtue ethics. Retrieved from

 

http://ethics.sandiego.edu/theories/Aristotle/index.asp

 

Ethics Updates. (2010, November 2). Gender and ethical theory. Retrieved from

 

http://ethics.sandiego.edu/theories/Gender/index.asp Bookstore Resources

 

https://courserooma.capella.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_37222_1&content_id=_3753951_1&mode=reset 3/5 11/10/2016 Assessment 2 ? PHI?FP2000 ? Summer 2016 ? Section 02 Bookstore Resources

 

The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not

 

required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella

 

University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific

 

?FP (FlexPath) course designation.

 

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2012). The elements of moral philosophy (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw?Hill.

 

Chapter 2, "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism."

 

Chapter 3, "Subjectivism in Ethics."

 

Chapter 12, "Feminism and the Ethics of Care."

 

Chapter 13, "The Ethics of Virtue." Assessment Instructions

 

For this assessment, you will invent a practical circumstance of your own choosing that illuminates

 

differences among the three approaches to normative theory? a circumstance in which the duties,

 

consequences, and virtues do not align with each other. It does not need to be a grand, controversial social

 

issue? an everyday moral dilemma will make the conflict clearer. Just look for an example where doing your

 

duty might cause lasting harm, or where caring about people requires breaking the rules.

 

Write a paper addressing this topic, supporting your statements with credible research on the three

 

approaches to normative theory. You may begin your research with the Suggested Resources for this unit,

 

but you are also expected to conduct your own independent research into the scholarly and professional

 

resources of the field.

 

Begin by describing a concrete situation that calls for someone to make an ethical decision about what to do.

 

Choosing your example carefully will make it easier to draw an interesting contrast between the theoretical

 

applications. Be sure to describe the situation with enough detail to provide adequate information for arriving

 

at a responsible choice. You are welcome to choose a case in which you are personally involved, but you

 

may find it easier to think objectively with a little detachment.

 

Next, think about the kinds of normative theory that could be applied to the situation you have chosen. If we

 

are not to surrender to ethical relativism, what should guide our decision here?duties, outcomes, or virtue?

 

You should select the approaches in a way that heightens the dilemma of deciding on a course of action that

 

would be right or wrong. Support your presentation by considering alternative ways of applying each theory

 

to the case. Use your example to compare and contrast the theoretical approaches in practical terms.

 

Finally, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these normative theories as methods for making moral

 

decisions in practical cases. Use what you have written about the application of each theory to your example

 

as evidence of the merits of each way of thinking about everyday choices. What makes the most sense, and

 

how would you decide yourself? State your own position on which normative theory works best, and defend

 

that position with clear arguments in its support. Additional Requirements

 

Written communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.

 

APA formatting: Include a title page and a references page, formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and

 

formatting.

 

References: A typical paper will include support from a minimum of 3?5 references. You may use some of the

 

materials recommended in the Resources, but you should also include support from your independent research of

 

scholarly or professional materials.

 

Length: A typical paper will be 4?6 typed, double?spaced pages in length.

 

Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12?point. Making a Moral Decision Scoring Guide

 

View Scoring Guide Use the scoring guide to enhance your learning. How to use the scoring guide

 

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