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[answered] 12/11/2016 Fear forces refugees in world's largest cam

For each of the eight attached articles, please provide ?no more than 6-8 sentences containing the following:

1. Brief summary of the article.?

2. What human rights issues the article brings up.

3. A question to pose to classmates to spark discussion.

Please make sure it no more than 6-8 sentences. Please provide a response for each of the 8 attached articles. Thanks.

12/11/2016 Fear forces refugees in world?s largest camp to return to conflict zones | Global development | The Guardian US edition newsopinion






US news /US politics /world news /environment /business /tech /science /


money Fear forces refugees in world?s largest camp to


return to con?ict zones


Human Rights Watch report says intimidation is driving many of the 300,000 residents of Kenya?s Dadaab


camp back to war-torn Somalia


Global development is supported by


Patrick Kingsley Migration correspondent About this content Thursday 15 September 2016 10.19 EDT Residents of the world?s largest refugee camp are technically being returned by force to con?ict


zones in a major contravention of international law, a rights group has argued. 1/3 12/11/2016 Fear forces refugees in world?s largest camp to return to conflict zones | Global development | The Guardian Since the Kenyan government announced in May that it will close the Dadaab camp in eastern


Kenya in November, many of the camp?s roughly 300,000 residents have begun to leave for their


original homes in war-torn Somalia.


The Kenyan government and the management of the UN refugee agency, UNHCR, claim these


returns are voluntary. But in a report released on Thursday, the US-based rights group Human


Rights Watch (HRW) said people are returning to Somalia because they feel intimidated, and


because they fear being expelled if they remain in the camp past November.


Based on interviews with 100 Dadaab residents, the report adds that returnees are also not being


given proper information about the situation in Somalia, and risk losing $400 (?300) in cash


handouts if they stay in Kenya.


A 42-year-old Somalian woman, who has signed up to return home, told HRW: ?We ?ed Somalia


because of speci?c problems, and those problems are still there. It?s not the right time for us to go


back. But every day the Kenyan government is telling us that we have to go, and UNHCR is not


giving us any di?erent information ? I said I will go back as we have no other option.?


HRW argues that this dynamic is technically a breach of international law, since the 1951 refugee


convention forbids the return or ?refoulement? of refugees to countries where they may be at




HRW states: ?Refoulement occurs not only when a refugee is directly rejected or expelled, but


also where indirect pressure on individuals is so intense that it leads them to believe that they


have no practical option but to return to a country where they face serious risk of persecution or


threats to their lives and safety.?


Bill Frelick, HRW?s refugee rights director, said: ?The Kenyan authorities are not giving Somali


refugees a real choice between staying and leaving, and the UN refugee agency isn?t giving people


accurate information about security conditions in Somalia. There is no way these returns can be


considered voluntary.?


In an interview with the Guardian earlier this year, Kenya?s vice-president, William Ruto, denied


that refugees were being coerced into leaving. ?We believe very strongly that there is a lot of


willingness by the refugees to go back home,? Ruto said. ?We do not expect that it will get to a


situation where anybody is forced to go back home, because that is not within our international




The management of the UN refugee agency, which is meant to ensure the implementation of the


1951 refugee convention, says the returns are legal. ?We have not seen [forced returns],? a


UNHCR spokesman said last month.


But in the ?eld, UNHCR o?cials told a di?erent story. ?Families we have interviewed and many


of those who ?lled the repatriation forms have shown that they are returning because of


threatening rhetoric by Kenyan regional security o?cials who recently visited the camp,? a


Dadaab-based UNHCR o?cial, Mohamed Mahad Gurhan, told Voice of America.


Kenyan o?cials say their actions are inspired by Europe?s attempts to keep Syrian refugees out of


Europe by force. The initial decision to close Dadaab came just weeks after the announcement of 2/3 12/11/2016 Fear forces refugees in world?s largest camp to return to conflict zones | Global development | The Guardian the EU-Turkey deal, which is meant to ensure the deportation of most asylum seekers arriving by


boat to Greece.


At the time, Kenya?s cabinet secretary, Joseph Nkaissery, said of the Dadaab closure: ?This is the


standard practice worldwide. For example in Europe, rich, prosperous and democratic countries


are turning away refugees from Syria, one of the worst war zones since world war two.?


The pattern is also being repeated in Pakistan, where HRW says the government is intimidating


tens of thousands of Afghan refugees into returning home.


Around 3 million Afghans have sought refuge in Pakistan, and roughly 90,000 have returned


home this year after what HRW calls coercion on the part of the government.


?Pakistani authorities are increasingly committing abuses against Afghan refugees that are


triggering a mass refugee return,? said Patricia Gossman, senior Afghanistan researcher at Human


Rights Watch. ?The government should rein in its abusive security forces and ensure the refugees?


secure status and protection.?


More news Topics


Migration and development Con?ict and development Refugees Kenya Somalia More?


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