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[answered] 14 Physiographic Provinces Bradley Deline 14.1 Introduction


Sir attached is the PDF with Lab questions through out the Lesson.? Thank you


14 Physiographic Provinces

 

Bradley Deline 14.1 Introduction

 

If you took a road trip across the continental United States of America you

 

would see significant changes in the landscape in terms of the topography, rocks,

 

soils, geological structures, and plant life that are evident even through the car

 

window on the highway. Regions vary in their geologic history, from the rocky

 

coastline of New England, to the flat plains of the Midwest, to the sharp peaks of

 

the Rocky Mountains, to the volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest, these (and the

 

many other) observable differences across the United States can be broken into

 

physiographic provinces. Physiographic provinces are identifiable by their distinctive landforms, geologic features, and suites of rocks.

 

You can observe such diverse geologic characteristics across the state of Georgia from the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the North, to the iconic red

 

clay of Middle Georgia, to the flat Coastal Plain. As we discuss the physiographic

 

provinces of Georgia, we will also explore regional geologic resources that benefit

 

the state as well as the major river systems that provide water for our state. Lastly,

 

the tools and knowledge you have gained in this lab manual will aid your reconstruction of the various physiographic province geologies. 14.1.1 Learning Outcomes

 

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

 

? Distinguish the different physiographic provinces of the United States

 

based on their topography, geology, and other features

 

? Identify the physiographic features of the different geological provinces

 

of Georgia

 

? Describe the major natural resources within Georgia including

 

minerals, building rock, and water Page | 334 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 14.1.2 Key Terms

 

? Adirondack Mountains

 

Province ? Fall Line ? Appalachian Plateau

 

Province ? Interior Lowlands Province ? Great Plains Province

 

? New England Province ? Basin and Range Province ? Physiographic Province ? Blue Ridge Province ? Piedmont Province ? Cascade Range ? Rocky Mountains ? Coastal Plain ? Sierra Nevada Range ? Colorado Plateau ? Valley and Ridge Province ? Columbia Plateau 14.2 Physiographic Provinces of the United

 

States Of America

 

The physiographic provinces of the United States of America can be broken

 

into three different broad areas: Western, Central, and Eastern regions (Figure

 

14.1). Adjacent provinces will share features or will at least be affected by the geologic events that define the nearby region. The Western Provinces are shaped by

 

relatively young events (Post-Paleozoic), which are mostly the result of an active

 

plate tectonic margin (the edge of the continent is also the edge of a tectonic plate). Figure 14.1 | Physiographic provinces of the continental United States of America.

 

Author: User ?Kbh3rd?

 

Source: Wikimedia Commons

 

License: CC BY 3.0 Page | 335 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces The Eastern Provinces are a mix between young and old geologic events. Most of

 

the individual provinces within this region result from the deformation of ancient

 

mountain building as well as the recent passive sedimentary buildup observable

 

today. Since the Central Provinces of the country has been largely shielded from

 

tectonic activity, this area is flatter and less deformed than the United States?

 

coasts. Before the individual provinces are discussed in depth, it will be helpful to

 

review the geologic time scale that was presented in Chapter 1. 14.2.1 Western U.S.

 

The geologic provinces in the Western United States occupy roughly a third of

 

the country and stretch from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. We can

 

group this tectonically active area into four types of provinces: the Rocky Mountains, the Coastal Pacific Mountain System, Interior Plateaus, and the extensional

 

Basin and Range.

 

The Rocky Mountains are an immense range that stretches from New Mexico

 

to Northern Canada. The Rocky Mountains first started to form during the Late Paleozoic, but their main growth occurred during the Laramide Orogeny during the

 

Late Mesozoic and Early Cenozoic. An orogeny is a large-scale deformational event

 

that is the result of the interaction between tectonic plates, in short it is mountain

 

building. The formation of this range differs from the Continent-Continent convergent boundaries, like the Himalayas you studied in Chapter 4. The Rocky Mountains

 

are the result of low-angle subduction, which caused deformation in the overlying

 

plate. This striking mountain range is no longer active nor growing and has since

 

been glaciated and eroded, which has rounded its highest peaks.

 

The Pacific Coast Mountains stretch

 

from Mexico to the Arctic Circle in Alaska.

 

Not only do the Pacific Coast Mountains

 

differ significantly from the Rocky Mountains, but the mountain ranges within the

 

Coastal Pacific Mountain System as also differ amongst themselves. The Sierra Nevada

 

Range runs 400 miles across the middle of

 

California and contains iconic features such

 

Yosemite?s Half Dome, which is a mecca for Figure 14.2 | Half Dome at Yosemite National

 

Park, which is part of the Sierra Nevada Range.

 

mountain climbers (Figure 14.2). As with the Author: Arian Zwegers

 

Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Range Source: Wikimedia Commons

 

is the byproduct of convergence and subduc- License: CC BY 2.0

 

tion. During the same time as the growth of the Rocky Mountains (Late Mesozoic), the subduction led to the formation of volcanoes and the intrusion of massive

 

granite batholiths. The volcanoes have long since eroded away exposing the batholiths at the surface. The Sierra Nevada topography is relatively recent (within

 

the last 5 million years), as these rocks have been deformed by extensional stress,

 

creating large fault blocks that build the steep face of the range. The Cascade Range

 

Page | 336 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces is the northern portion of the Pacific Coast Mountain Range that spans an area

 

from Northern California to Canada. The Cascade Range is the result of modern

 

subduction of the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates under the North American Plate.

 

Whereas the Sierra Nevada range is the eroded exposed core of a Mesozoic chain

 

of volcanoes, the Cascade Range is modern and active. This chain encompasses

 

thousands of volcanoes including well-known landmarks such as Mount Rainier

 

and Mount Saint Helens.

 

Between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast Mountain Range is a large

 

broad area containing a great diversity of geologic features. The Northernmost portion between the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains is the Columbia Plateau.

 

The Columbia Plateau is a large igneous province dominated by Cenozoic volcanic

 

rocks that are a product of the Yellowstone Hotspot. This hotspot produced several

 

massive, though infrequent, eruptions; the

 

largest eruption covering over 50,000 square

 

miles. The Yellowstone Hotspot is still active

 

and supplies the heat that feeds the classic

 

geysers and hot springs throughout Yellowstone National Park (Figure 14.3). Southeast

 

of this province is the Colorado Plateau,

 

which is a broad flat expanse that considering its neighboring provinces, is remarkably

 

Figure 14.3 | Hot Spring in Yellowstone National un-deformed. The Colorado Plateau is mostPark within the Columbia Plateau Province.

 

ly composed of horizontal Paleozoic and MeAuthor: User ?daveynin?

 

Source: Flickr

 

sozoic sedimentary rocks that contain abunLicense: CC BY 2.0

 

dant fossils, including the massive bone beds

 

of Dinosaur National Monument. During the Laramide Orogeny this area was dramatically uplifted, allowing rivers to erode downward thus producing immense

 

canyons, such as Grand Canyon National Park. The southeastern portion of the

 

expanse between the Mountain Ranges is called the Basin and Range Province.

 

This area can easily be recognized by the abundant Horsts and Grabens. Which you

 

may remember are series of elevated plateaus and low basins produced from the

 

extensional deformation of abundant paired and mirrored normal faults. There are

 

multiple hypotheses for the source of the extension, which range from heating from

 

the mantle to movement along the San Andres Fault. 14.2.2 Eastern U.S.

 

The physiographic provinces that occupy the eastern third of the country range

 

from New England to Texas, wrapping around the Gulf of Mexico. These provinces can easily be split into three regions, such as the provinces associated with the

 

building of the Appalachian Mountains, provinces built by much older orogenies

 

in the Northeast, and provinces created from more recent passive build-up of sediments along the coast. Page | 337 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces The Appalachian Mountains are the

 

product of multiple collisions with small

 

island chains during the Paleozoic, culminating with a collision with the supercontinent of Gondwana during the formation of

 

Pangaea. These ancient mountains have

 

been significantly eroded down to rolling

 

hills that span most of the Southeastern

 

United States as seen in Great Smoky

 

Mountains National Park (Figure 14.4). Figure 14.4 | Appalachian Mountains within

 

The Appalachian Mountains can be further Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which

 

contains multiple physiographic provinces.

 

divided into four distinctive physiographic Author: Ernest Duffo

 

provinces based on their topography and Source: Flickr

 

geology. The center of the Appalachian License: CC BY 2.0

 

Mountains is called the Valley and Ridge Province, which is composed of highly

 

folded and faulted sedimentary rock. Fossils within these rocks indicate that they

 

are Paleozoic in age with thick and resistant Pennsylvanian-age sandstones forming its ridges while weaker Devonian and Cambrian shales forming its valleys. To

 

the east of the Valley and Ridge is the Blue Ridge Province, which was uplifted

 

along with the Valley and Ridge but is composed of much older igneous and metamorphic rock. Absolute dating of these rocks indicates that the Blue Ridge was

 

formed during the Proterozoic and later deformed during the Middle Paleozoic.

 

The topography between these two provinces differs with the more uniform rocks

 

in the Blue Ridge producing random peaks, valleys, and ridges as opposed to the

 

resistant and non-resistant rocks of the Valley and Ridge, which produce more

 

uniformly parallel ridges.

 

Southeast of the Blue Ridge is the Piedmont Province, which is typified by much

 

lower, rolling hills along with small isolated

 

mountains such as Stone Mountain in Georgia

 

(Figure 14.5). The Piedmont is composed of

 

igneous and metamorphic rock from the cores

 

of long eroded mountain chains ranging from

 

the Proterozoic to the end of the Paleozoic period. On the adjacent west side of the Valley

 

and Ridge province is the Appalachian Plateau,

 

Figure 14.5 | Stone Mountain within the Piedmont which is an uplifted and largely un-deformed

 

Province.

 

region analogous to the Colorado Plateau. The

 

Author: User ?kschlot1?

 

Source: Flickr

 

rocks in this province are similar in age and

 

License: CC BY 2.0

 

lithology to those in the Valley and Ridge, but

 

the preservation of fossils is enhanced because of the absence of extensive folding

 

and faulting. In addition, the Appalachian Plateau contains abundant geological

 

resources, including coal in West Virginia and iron in Alabama.

 

Page | 338 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces The physiographic provinces in the northeastern United States are very similar to the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces. The New England Province is

 

similar to the Piedmont in that it is composed of Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks. The major difference between these

 

two provinces is in their history following exposure, with the New England Province showing extensive weathering and erosion from glaciers that is absent from

 

its southeastern counterpart. The Adirondack Mountain Province located in

 

upstate New York is similar to the Blue Ridge in that they are both composed of

 

igneous and metamorphic rock. However, the Adirondacks are fairly unique considering that they are a circular rather than linear range of mountains. The rocks

 

themselves are billion year old remnants of the building of a Proterozoic supercontinent called Rodinia. The actual mountains in the range are quite young and

 

represent Late Cenozoic uplift, which exposed these ancient rocks.

 

The last eastern physiographic province is the Coastal Plain that spans a vast

 

area along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from New England to Texas. This

 

province is composed of the sediment that has accumulated since the rifting of

 

Pangaea when the eastern edge of the continent became tectonically inactive. The

 

sediment was derived from the continent and was deposited in shallow marine

 

sedimentary environments with abundant, mature sediment and marine fossils. 14.2.3 Central U.S.

 

The central third of the country is

 

mostly flat, un-deformed, and dominated by sequences of sedimentary rocks.

 

We separate this broad expanse into two

 

physiographic provinces based largely

 

on the source of the sediment. The Interior Lowlands Province covers the

 

Midwestern states and consists largely

 

of un-deformed Paleozoic marine rocks

 

(limestones and shales) that have been Figure 14.6 | Mammoth Cave National Park in

 

since carved and shaped by the activity of Central Kentucky.

 

Author: Gary Tindale

 

glaciers and rivers. This description may Source: Flickr

 

not seem as geologically exciting as those License: CC BY 2.0

 

to the east or west, but spectacular cave developments can occur in these marine

 

limestones, such as those from Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (Figure 14.6). To the

 

west of the Interior Lowlands Province is the Great Plains Province, which is

 

composed of sediments that eroded from the Rocky Mountains and are, therefore,

 

substantially younger (Mesozoic and Cenozoic) with a higher proportion of clastic

 

material. As with Interior Lowlands, the Great Plains have since been shaped by

 

glaciers and rivers. Page | 339 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 14.3 Lab Exercise

 

Materials

 

We will explore the various physiographic provinces of the United States of

 

America by looking closely at the National Parks that showcase iconic geologic

 

and topological features within each region. For each park, examine the area using

 

Google Earth. To get a better view of the features, making sure to zoom in and out

 

and also click on multiple photographs posted (make sure that photos are checked

 

in the layers box). More information about these and other parks can be found at

 

www.nps.gov.

 

This lab is also cumulative in that you may need to review the material presented in previous chapters to answer the following questions. Part A ? National Parks

 

Crater Lake National Park

 

Crater Lake National Park (Figure

 

14.7) is located in southern Oregon and

 

was established as a National Park in

 

1902. The main attraction at this park is

 

Crater Lake, which at almost 2,000 feet is

 

one of the deepest lakes on Earth. Search

 

for 42 56 33.15N 122 06 14.89W and zoom

 

out to an eye altitude of 15 miles. Figure 14.7 | Crater Lake National Park,

 

Southern Oregon.

 

Author: Ray Bouknight 1. What type of volcano is Crater Lake? Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY 2.0 a. Composite Volcano

 

b. Shield Volcano

 

c. Caldera

 

d. Cinder Cone

 

2. What is the origin of this volcano?

 

a. Subduction of an oceanic plate at a Convergent Boundary

 

b. Subduction of a continental plate at a Convergent Boundary

 

c. Development of a Hotspot

 

d. Continental Rifting Page | 340 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 3. Crater Lake National Park is located in which of the following physiographic

 

provinces?

 

a. Rocky Mountains b. Sierra Nevada c. Cascades d. Columbia Plateau e. Colorado Plateau f. Basin and Range Theodore Roosevelt National Park

 

Theodore Roosevelt National Park (Figure 14.8) is located in North Dakota and was

 

established as a National Park 1978. This

 

park was named after Theodore Roosevelt in

 

honor of his conservation policies that led to

 

the establishment of the National Park System. Following the death of his wife, Roosevelt spent several years in the area that

 

would ultimately become the park, during

 

which time he wrote extensively about the

 

lonely beauty of the surrounding landscape.

 

Search for 46 58 52.55N 103 32 13.91W and

 

zoom out to an eye altitude of 30,000 feet. Figure 14.8 | Theodore Roosevelt National Park,

 

North Dakota.

 

Author: User ?stereogab?

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY-SA 2.0 4. What is the prominent drainage pattern in this park?

 

a. Radial b. Trellis c. Rectangular d. Dendritic 5. One of the main attractions at this park is a forest of large petrified trees. These

 

trees were preserved by being replaced with silica from ash layers within the

 

Triassic (Mesozoic) sandstones. Based on the geologic history and features of the

 

area, which of the following statements about these sedimentary rocks is TRUE?

 

a. The clastic sand that forms these rocks was weathered and eroded from the Appalachian Mountains.

 

b. The ash was produced from volcanoes associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot.

 

c. The clastic sand that forms these rocks was weathered and eroded from the Rocky

 

Mountains.

 

d. The clastic sand that forms these rocks was weathered and eroded from the Sierra

 

Nevada Mountains.

 

Page | 341 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 6. Theodore Roosevelt National Park is located in which of the following

 

physiographic provinces?

 

a. Rocky Mountains b. Colorado Plateau c. Interior Lowlands d. Great Plains e. Basin and Range f. Columbia Plateau Acadia National Park Acadia National Park (Figure 14.9) is located in Southern Maine and was preserved

 

as a National Park in 1916. This was the first

 

park established east of the Mississippi River and helped Maine gain the nickname ?Vacationland?. Search for 44 21 09.94N 68 13

 

23.22W and zoom out to an eye altitude of

 

3,000 feet.

 

7. Based on the history of the region

 

containing Acadia National Park and the

 

color of the rocks, what type of igneous

 

rock occur in this area?

 

a. Gabbro b. Granite d. Andesite Figure 14.9 | Acadia National Park in Southern

 

Maine.

 

Author: Ken Lund

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY-SA 2.0 c. Rhyolite e. Diorite 8. What type of igneous body does this structure represent?

 

a. Stock b. Dike c. Sill 9. Acadia National Park is located in which of the following physiographic

 

provinces?

 

a. Interior Lowlands b. Adirondacks c. Great Plains d. Appalachian Plateau e. New England f. Piedmont Page | 342 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces Congaree National Park

 

Congaree National Park (Figure 14.10)

 

is located in South Carolina and was recently established as a National Park in

 

2003. Unlike most National Parks, this

 

area was preserved for reasons other than

 

geology. Congaree contains the oldest

 

tract of old growth hardwood forest left

 

in the United States. This lush ecosystem

 

contains a diverse assemblage of animals,

 

fungi, and plants. Search for 33 47 57.63N

 

80 47 49.79W and zoom out to an eye altitude of 35,000 feet. Figure 14.10 | Congaree National Park in South

 

Carolina.

 

Author: Miguel Vieira

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY 2.0 10. What is the maturity of the river in this area?

 

a. Youthful b. Mature c. Old Age 11. Zoom out to an eye altitude of 500 miles to see the source of the sediment that

 

is accumulating in this area. This sediment is __________ and if lithified

 

would be called _________.

 

a. Immature, Conglomerate b. Intermediate, Sandstone c. Mature, Shale 12. Congaree National Park is located in which of the following physiographic

 

provinces?

 

a. Interior Lowlands b. Blue Ridge d. Coastal Plain c. Piedmont e. New England Shenandoah National Park

 

Shenandoah National Park (Figure 14.11)

 

is located in Virginia and was established as

 

a National Park in 1935. This park, which is

 

located close to Washington, D.C., is a favorite of hikers containing 101 miles of the Appalachian Trail, which runs from Northern

 

Georgia to Maine. Search for 38 17 53.72N 78

 

40 26.42W and zoom out to an eye altitude of

 

25,000 feet. Figure 14.11 | Shenandoah National Park in

 

Virginia.

 

Author: Beau Considine

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Page | 343 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 13. Look over the region and examine the mountains, note their shape, ground

 

cover, and height. Then Search for 43 48 25.03N 110 50 26.19W to examine

 

Grand Tetons National Park. How do the Shenandoah Mountains compare to

 

the Rocky Mountains?

 

a. The Shenandoah Mountains are shorter.

 

b. The Shenandoah Mountains are more rounded.

 

c. The Shenandoah Mountains have more vegetation.

 

d. All of the above.

 

14. Based on these observations, we can conclude that the mountains in

 

Shenandoah National Park have undergone _________erosion and are

 

_____________ the Rocky Mountains.

 

a. more, older than b. less, younger than c. the same amount of, the same age as 15. Shanandoah National Park is located in which of the following physiographic

 

provinces?

 

a. Blue Ridge b. Piedmont c. Appalachian Plateau d. Valley and Ridge e. Adirondack Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park Black Canyon of the Gunnison National

 

Park (Figure 14.12) is located in Western Colorado and was established as a National Park

 

in 1999. This park is often overshadowed by

 

the Grand Canyon, but is striking in its own

 

right. The Gunnison River has a high gradient, which has produced an incredibly steep

 

canyon. In fact, it is called Black Canyon not

 

because of the color of the rocks, but because

 

of the dark shadows produced by the steep

 

walls of the canyon. Search for 38 34 43.18N

 

107 43 43.74W and zoom out to an eye altitude of 30,000 feet. Page | 344 Figure 14.12 | Black Canyon of the Gunnison

 

National Park in Colorado.

 

Author: User ?daveynin?

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY 2.0 Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces 16. What type of weathering is primarily responsible for the formation of this

 

canyon?

 

a. Frost wedging b. Chemical weathering c. Mechanical weathering from air d. Mechanical weathering from water 17. We can measure the rate of erosion in this canyon at about 0.01 inches/year.

 

Based on this rate, when did the canyon start to erode? (Hint: Measure the

 

difference in elevation from the bottom of the canyon at the latitude and

 

longitude given above and the top, measured at the road on the edge of the

 

canyon due south of the previous point. Then divide by the rate of erosion.

 

Make sure to use the correct units.)

 

a. 750,000 years b. 1,200,000 years c. 2,700,000 years d. 3,500,000 years 18. Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is located in which of the following

 

physiographic provinces?

 

a. Blue Ridge b. Colorado Plateau c. Appalachian Plateau d. Rocky Mountains e. Basin and Range f. Columbia Plateau 14.4 Geology of Georgia

 

Georgia is a wonderful natural laboratory for

 

the study of geology. The rocks within this state

 

span over a billion years of history and through

 

this lens we can study all of the topics presented within this lab manual. Within the state we

 

have mountains, coastlines, folds, faults, earthquakes, fossils, a diversity of rocks, and evidence

 

for ancient volcanic eruptions. As would be expected with this geologic diversity, Georgia contains multiple physiographic provinces (Figure

 

14.13) that have been discussed above.

 

The northwestern portion of the state is

 

within the Valley and Ridge Province and shows

 

the characteristic sandstone ridges with folded and deformed shale within valleys. As you

 

might expect, the shale is relatively soft (which

 

is why they show more deformation) and erodes

 

quickly underneath the massive sandstones.

 

This causes the sandstones to break and tumble

 

Page | 345 Figure 14.13 | Physiographic provinces of

 

Georgia.

 

Author: USGS

 

Source: Wikimedia Commons

 

License: Public Domain Introductory Geology Physiogr aphic Provinces downhill making the Rock Cities that are

 

a tourist attraction surrounding Lookout

 

Mountain. The sands are Pennsylvanian in

 

age and interbedded within them are thick

 

coal deposits of ancient forests. These deposits were mined in the past, but for the

 

most part are not currently active. The

 

northeastern corner of the state is in the

 

Blue Ridge physiographic province, which

 

contains mountains consisting of ancient

 

igneous and metamorphic rock. This area of

 

Georgia contains large protected areas that

 

preserve its natural beauty (such as Chattahoochee National Forest) and contains

 

spectacular waterfalls as seen at Tallulah

 

Falls State Park (Figure 14.14).

 

Figure 14.14 | Tallulah Falls State Park in

 

The central portion of the state is within

 

Northern Georgia.

 

the Piedmont Province that consists of rollAuthor: Stanislav Vitebskiy

 

ing hills of igneous and metamorphic rocks

 

Source: Flickr

 

License: CC BY-ND 2.0

 

punctuated with large batholiths. This region has several important geologic resources. First, the granite within the Piedmont has been mined for buildings, monuments, and memorial stones. The granite

 

mining industry is one of the leading producers of granite within the United State,

 

which is centered in Elberton, Georgia. The Piedmont Provin...

 


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