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[answered] 15. Lactose metabolism: E. coli grows faster on the monosac


15. Lactose metabolism: E. coli grows faster on the monosaccharide glucose than it does on the disaccharide lactose for two reasons: (1) lactose is taken up more slowly than glucose and (2) lactose must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose (by B-galactosidase, which is encoded by the lacZ gene) before it can be further metabolized. When E. coli is grown on a medium containing a mixture of glucose and lactose, it shows complex growth kinetics (see Figure at right, red squares). The bacteria grow faster at the beginning than at the end, and there is a lag between these two growth phases when they virtually stop growing. For convenience of grading, we will identify the three phases as PhaseI (0-90 min), PhaseII (90-120 min), and PhaseIII (120-200 min). I Phase] Him-211M Phasem l I ' I ' ' ' ' I ?313: _ {'3/ --?ID .I' _ _ I.- _ r?w E E 11?. _ halal-7 I E. E . :?5 E E - - a g -? a . III |?l -" ?D?gluc-:-5e ?? p-galactc-Sidage ??|:| m3 - - I - - - I - . I - - [I 5|] ?IUD 150 EC?) time[min]i Assays of the concentration of the two sugars of the medium show that glucose falls to very low levels after a few generations of growth (Figure, blue circles), but lactose remains high until near the end of the experimental time course. Although the concentrations of lactose is high throughout the experiment, B-galactosidase, which is regulated as part of the lac operon, is not induced until more than 100 minutes have passed (Figure, green triangles). a) [5 pts] Using speci?c molecular species identified in your textbook about the lac operon and also drawing cartoons of the different state of the lac operon, explain the kinetics of bacterial growth during the experiment. Account for the three phases of bacterial growth: rapid rate of initial growth (PhaseI), the slower rate of final growth (PhaseIII), and the delay in growth in the middle of the experiment (PhaseII). [3 pt] Explain why the lac operon does not appear induced by lactose during the rapid initial phase of bacterial growth. b) [E-galactuaida?e] (arbitrary units)
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