A therapist has appointments with four patients who have different psychological disorders. Which patient is most likely to receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?
A. Luka, who has a severe case of anxiety and a history of panic attacks
B. Megan, who has histrionic personality disorder
C. Brittany, who has schizophrenia and whose hallucinations are well controlled with medication
D. Zack, who has had severe depression for many years and has had limited success with drug treatments
Aaron has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, and the main symptom he experiences is that he always feels hostile. This leads to inappropriate lashing out at others, and it has cost him relationships and jobs. Which type of medication might be helpful in reducing his hostility levels?
B. anti-anxiety drugs
D. mood stabilizers
After World War II, a lack of psychotherapists resulted in the emergence of what type of therapy, which offers cost benefits and is available to more people?
A. psychodynamic therapy
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy
C. humanistic therapy
D. group therapy
Alexis was diagnosed with OCD because she has to check the locks on her house and car many times before she can leave them. Her therapist asks her to lock a door then takes away the keys so Alexis cannot lock the door again. Taking away the keys is __________ and locking the door is __________.
A. systematic desensitization; exposure
B. exposure; response prevention
C. response prevention; exposure
D. response prevention; systematic desensitization
Amaya has been diagnosed with major depression and is not responding to conventional treatments. Which of the following might be an effective alternative therapeutic approach?
A. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
B. group therapy
D. rational-emotive therapy
Benton hears voices when no one is present. His psychiatrist prescribes an antipsychotic, which is a type of __________ that works by __________.
A. biological therapy; producing a seizure
B. psychotropic medication; changing brain neurochemistry
C. alternative therapy; changing brain neurochemistry
D. psychological therapy; restructuring delusional thinking
Cassie is seeing Dr. Bullock, a therapist who is helping her reduce her tendency to procrastinate by developing a system of rewards and punishments associated with her behavior. Dr. Bullock most likely is a proponent of which kind of psychotherapy?
A. behavior therapy
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
C. humanistic therapy
D. group therapy
Christopher's therapist is treating him for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Which of the following methods is likely to be most effective over the long term?
D. group therapy.
Dr. Janus is treating a patient who has been diagnosed with APD. Which of the following treatments would likely be most effective?
A. exploring the patient's past trauma and unconscious conflicts
B. using operant procedures to replace extreme and dysfunctional behaviors with more appropriate ones
C. focusing on developing the patient's self-respect and independence
D. stabilizing her patient's moods with lithium
Dr. Kopelski is an expert in the treatment of schizophrenia, and he regularly prescribes medications for patients with this condition. He prefers to use the atypical antipsychotics, but he knows that there are some serious side effects that his patients must be monitored for. These side effects include all but which of the following?
A. a potentially fatal drop in white blood cells
C. tardive dyskinesia
D. substantial weight gain
Dr. Martinez's patient has __________. The doctor wants to use an evidence-based treatment to reduce the symptoms; therefore, she will treat the patient with __________.
A. schizophrenia; social skills training
B. OCD; lithium
C. panic disorder; ECT
D. schizophrenia; an antipsychotic medication
Hank has been diagnosed with APD and is getting treatment. Which of the following factors that are common to his disorder will likely make it difficult for him to develop a therapeutic relationship with his psychologist?
A. diminished cortical arousal; self-injurious behavior
B. intense unstable moods; depression
C. excessive lying; little concern for others' feelings
D. hallucinations; delusions
Julie is depressed and sees a therapist for treatment. The therapist works with Julie to help her identify the automatic, negative thoughts she has about herself and her future that are contributing to her depression. Julie's therapist is likely using
A. psychodynamic therapy.
B. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
C. client-centered therapy.
D. a systems approach.
Kayla's therapist first taught her mindfulness meditation so she could focus on the present. Then, Kayla and her therapist talked about events in Kayla's past that led to her current problems. Now her therapist is teaching her to have self-respect and to think for herself. Kayla is probably being treated for
A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. borderline personality disorder.
Nelson is seeing a psychotherapist whose approach to treatment involves addressing the "whole person." The therapy does not consider an isolated problem or behavior, but takes a larger view of the process of improvement. What type of therapy is this?
Nine-year-old Mario has been given a prescription for Ritalin. He is probably being treated for
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
C. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
One treatment of choice for children with autism spectrum disorder is a behavioral approach called applied behavior analysis. The technique notes that behaviors that are reinforced should increase in frequency, while those that are not reinforced should diminish. Which learning theory is the foundation for this approach?
A. operant conditioning
B. classical conditioning
C. cognitive restructuring
D. unconditional positive regard
Penelope experiences regular panic attacks, and her fear of them happening again has led her to be diagnosed with panic disorder. She is working with a therapist who helps her to change her thinking about the attacks and the hope is that the anxiety as well as the attacks will be reduced over time. What psychotherapy technique is the therapist using?
A. systematic desensitization
B. cognitive restructuring
C. exposure and response prevention
D. free association
Sixteen-year-old Ashley is seeing a therapist for depression. Her therapist suggests getting a prescription for an SSRI from her physician. The therapist explains several benefits to Ashley's parents, but the therapist makes one mistake. Which of the following statements by the therapist is NOT correct?
A. Overall, suicide rates decrease when adolescents take SSRIs.
B. The medication has no risks or side effects.
C. The number of suicides among adolescents taking SSRIs is very low.
D. Adolescents show the greatest benefit from a combination of therapy and medication.
Ten-year-old Isaac has been diagnosed with ADHD. In terms of treatment options, which of the following will have the best outcome in the long term?
B. antipsychotic medication
D. behavior therapy
The cognitive triad, identified by Dr. Aaron Beck, is a combination of negative thoughts that are believed to be related to the symptoms of depression. Which is NOT a part of the cognitive triad?
A. negative thoughts about one's self
B. negative thoughts about one's family
C. negative thoughts about one's future
D. negative thoughts about one's situation
The goal of CBT in treating panic disorder is to
A. uncover the unconscious conflicts leading to the panic.
B. break the connection between the trigger symptom and the resulting panic.
C. treat the disorder at its biological source.
D. boost self-esteem so the client may realize his or her human potential.
The most successful approach to treating borderline personality disorder is
A. dialectical behavior therapy.
B. cognitive therapy.
C. mood stabilizing medication.
The use of antidepressants with children and adolescents is associated with an increased risk of potentially dangerous outcomes. This prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to require warning labels on the packaging of these medications. What was one potentially dangerous impact?
A. the development of pancreatitis and diabetes symptoms
B. an increased risk of becoming suicidal
C. a white blood cell disease called agranulocytosis
D. the development of an irreversible series of muscle tics and tremors
These four patients have been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (APD). Which patient is most likely to show improvement?
A. Brandon, who lives in a correctional institution and attends therapy sessions with other patients
B. Andre, who lives in a correctional institution and meets one-on-one with a therapist
C. Taylor, who lives at home and attends therapy sessions with other patients
D. Chuck, who lives at home and meets one-on-one with a therapist
Three-year-old Emily spends every day with a therapist. Her therapist helps her learn language and social skills by reinforcing positive behaviors. Emily's therapist is using which type of therapy to treat which condition?
A. applied behavior analysis; autism
B. applied behavior analysis; ADHD
C. dialectical behavior therapy; autism
D. dialectical behavior therapy; ADHD
To help Charlie overcome his phobia of heights, his therapist trains him to relax and then has him imagine climbing a ladder. After Charlie visualizes climbing a ladder without anxiety, he attempts to imagine standing at the top of a tall building without feeling anxious. Charlie's therapist is using a technique known as
A. systematic desensitization.
C. client-centered therapy.
D. a systems approach.
When Joseph was a child in the 1950s, he lived through an outbreak of a specific type of sickness in the United States. The medication used to treat this condition was also found to increase mood and led to the development of antidepressant drugs. What was this epidemic that Joseph remembers?
A. the measles
Which type of psychotherapy has been found to be particularly effective in helping children and adolescents who experience the symptoms of depression?
A. applied behavior analysis
C. humanistic therapy
D. cognitive-behavioral therapy
Yasmine has been taking a psychotropic medication that is classified as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Her side effects have included some weight gain and an interruption of her normal sexual functioning. What class of medication is this?
C. mood stabilizer
D. anti-anxiety drug
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