According to the design argument, since the universe resembles man-made machines, and since man-made machines are caused by planning intelligence, we can infer that the universe is caused by planning intelligence. What crucial problems does this argument face?
(a) There are causes of order and design other than planning intelligence (vegetative reproduction, animal reproduction, instinct, animal forces) and the universe resembles the orderly products of nonintelligent forces as much as it resembles manmade machines.
(b) A look at the world we inhabit suggests that planning intelligence is actually a product of non-intelligent forces: (i) humans?the paradigms of planning intelligence?are the result of animal reproduction; (ii) intelligent creatures have evolved over millennia from forms of life lacking intelligence.
(c) Since the design argument relies on the principle that like effects have like causes, the more the universe resembles man-made machines (and thus the more likely it is that the universe is the result of planning intelligence) the more likely it is that the cause of the universe resembles man (and man?s way of producing machines).
(d) b and c
(e) all of the above
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