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[answered] Assignment 3 Weight: 5% Minimum Pass Grade: 50% Each questi


please answer questions 5, 6 and 7. thanks a lot. anatomy questios


Assignment 3

 

Weight: 5%

 

Minimum Pass Grade: 50%

 

Each question is worth 10 marks.

 

1. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each sentence. Be as specific as possible.

 

a. Erythrocytes contain the enzyme ?????, which catalyzes the conversion of metabolically

 

produced CO2 and water into ?????.

 

b. Most old erythrocytes are removed from circulation and destroyed by cells called ?????,

 

as they rupture passing through the narrow capillaries of the organ called the ?????.

 

c. Undifferentiated cells called ????? reside in the bone marrow, where they continuously

 

divide and ????? to give rise to each of the types of blood cells.

 

d. The process of leukocytes squeezing through the capillary ????? to exit the vasculature is

 

known as ?????. Once they leave the bloodstream to fight a pathological condition, they

 

never return.

 

e. The genetically-determined glycoprotein and glycolipid antigens found on the surface of

 

an erythrocyte are called ?????, and a person with agglutinins that react with type A and

 

blood type B has type ????? blood.

 

f. During embryonic development, ninety-nine percent of the cardiac fibers are specialized

 

for the function called ?????, whereas the remainder is specialized for ?????.

 

g. The action potential delay at the ????? ensures that atrial excitation and contraction are

 

complete before ????? excitation and contraction commence.

 

h. The ????? is the volume of blood in the ventricle after ejection has been completed. An

 

increase of this volume occurs when the stroke volume is ?????.

 

i. The three cations, K+, Ca2+, and Na+ have an important effect of heart function. Increased

 

blood levels of Na+ blocks ????? inflow and results in a decrease in the force of

 

contraction, while an excess of ????? blocks the generation of action potentials.

 

j. An increase in parasympathetic activity has the following effect on stroke volume: ?????.

 

An increase in parasympathetic activity ????? atrial contractility. 2. A patient has the misfortune to have both diabetes insipidus and Addison?s disease. How will

 

those conditions affect the patient?s ability to regulate blood pressure?

 

????? Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 3. In the correct sequence, list the names of the blood vessels and heart?s chambers that an

 

RBC would travel through (or flow into other vessels) on its journey from the muscles

 

located anterior to the right tibia to the heart, then to the left shoulder muscles, and then

 

back to the heart. Take in consideration only the vessels listed in the Study Guide.

 

?????

 

4. Describe the activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells and B cells and briefly

 

describe the functions of the differentiated cells.

 

?????

 

5. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B.

 

Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B.

 

Column A Column B 1. alveolar macrophages ????? serves as a sound resonating chamber;

 

contains tonsils; directs air inferiorly ????? passes air from pharynx into windpipe;

 

site of sound production ????? resonate(s) sound; not part of pharynx ????? opening from oral cavity into pharynx ????? carries air to a segment of a lung ????? carries air directly into a respiratory

 

bronchiole ????? surround the lungs ????? reduces surface tension at sites of gas

 

exchange ????? actual sites of gas exchange ????? normal, quiet breathing ????? shallow breathing using just the

 

external intercostal muscles ????? amount of effort required to expand

 

the lungs and chest wall ????? tidal volume + inspiratory reserve

 

volume, usually about 3600 mL in

 

males ????? tidal volume + inspiratory reserve

 

volume + expiratory reserve volume;

 

usually about 4800 mL in males ????? residual volume + expiratory reserve

 

volume; usually about 2400 mL in

 

males ????? states that the amount of gas that will

 

dissolve in a liquid is proportional to 2. alveoli

 

3. Bohr effect

 

4. bronchi

 

5. bronchiole

 

6. cerebral cortex

 

7. chloride shift

 

8. compliance

 

9. costal breathing

 

10.Dalton?s law

 

11.diaphragmatic breathing

 

12.epiglottis

 

13.eupnea

 

14.expiratory reserve volume

 

15.fauces

 

16.functional residual capacity

 

17.Haldane effect

 

18.Henry?s law

 

19.hilum

 

20.hypothalamus

 

21.inferior, middle, and superior nasal

 

meatuses

 

22.inspiratory capacity

 

23.larynx

 

24.limbic system

 

25.medulla oblongata

 

26.nose

 

27.paranasal sinuses

 

28.pharynx

 

29.pleural membranes

 

30.pons

 

31.primary bronchus

 

32.secondary bronchus

 

33.surface tension

 

34.surfactant

 

35.terminal bronchiole Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 36.tertiary bronchus

 

37.total lung capacity

 

38.trachea

 

39.vital capacity the partial pressure of that gas and its

 

solubility

 

????? when pH decreases, O2 saturation of

 

hemoglobin decreases ????? each gas in a mixture of gases exerts

 

its own partial pressure ????? sets basic rhythm of breathing ????? includes the pontine respiratory group 6. You eat spaghetti with meatballs in marinara sauce and drink a glass of orange juice.

 

Describe the chemical components of your meal, the digestive events in the mouth, and the

 

content of your stomach one hour after you ingest the meal and juice, and describe what

 

happens to the chemical constituents in the stomach. Describe the digestive processes for

 

each of these nutrients in the small intestine, and the mechanisms for absorption of

 

vitamins, water, and electrolytes.

 

?????

 

7. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete the sentence.

 

a ????? is the sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body, while ????? refers to chemical

 

reactions that decompose large molecules into smaller ones. b ????? is the chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons and it is the opposite of

 

?????.

 

c ????? is a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms during coupled ????? reactions in the

 

cell. d ????? is made primarily in the mitochondria by a process called ?????.

 

e ????? is a set of reactions in which there is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules

 

of pyruvic acid, and ????? is the formation of glucose molecules from noncarbohydrate

 

sources. f ????? transport lipids in the bloodstream; they include VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs. In

 

lipolysis, ????? are split into fatty acids and glycerol. g ????? is the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle; it is also used to synthesize fatty acids,

 

ketone bodies, and ?????.

 

h ????? is the primary hormone regulating metabolism during the absorptive state; the

 

major task of the ????? state is to maintain the normal blood glucose level.

 

i The metabolic rate observed when a fasting individual is resting but awake and is

 

experiencing comfortable conditions is called the ?????. Peripheral ????? allows increased

 

blood flow to superficial tissues of the body to release excess heat. Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 3 j ????? is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid; proper levels of this ion are

 

critical for nerve impulse conduction and maintenance of ????? balance. 8. Describe the pressures that affect glomerular filtration, and describe the effects of drinking

 

too much beer on the urinary system.

 

?????

 

9. List and briefly describe the mechanisms that prevent acid-base imbalances from appearing

 

in the body. In addition, indicate where each mechanism functions most significantly. (Do not

 

explain any specific chemical reactions.)

 

?????

 

10.Describe the path of a sperm cell from the site of its maturation to the site of the acrosomal

 

reaction. Include the major function of each segment in this process and descriptions and

 

functions of fluids added along that path.

 

????? Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 4

 


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