please answer questions 5, 6 and 7. thanks a lot. anatomy questios
Minimum Pass Grade: 50%
Each question is worth 10 marks.
1. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete each sentence. Be as specific as possible.
a. Erythrocytes contain the enzyme ?????, which catalyzes the conversion of metabolically
produced CO2 and water into ?????.
b. Most old erythrocytes are removed from circulation and destroyed by cells called ?????,
as they rupture passing through the narrow capillaries of the organ called the ?????.
c. Undifferentiated cells called ????? reside in the bone marrow, where they continuously
divide and ????? to give rise to each of the types of blood cells.
d. The process of leukocytes squeezing through the capillary ????? to exit the vasculature is
known as ?????. Once they leave the bloodstream to fight a pathological condition, they
e. The genetically-determined glycoprotein and glycolipid antigens found on the surface of
an erythrocyte are called ?????, and a person with agglutinins that react with type A and
blood type B has type ????? blood.
f. During embryonic development, ninety-nine percent of the cardiac fibers are specialized
for the function called ?????, whereas the remainder is specialized for ?????.
g. The action potential delay at the ????? ensures that atrial excitation and contraction are
complete before ????? excitation and contraction commence.
h. The ????? is the volume of blood in the ventricle after ejection has been completed. An
increase of this volume occurs when the stroke volume is ?????.
i. The three cations, K+, Ca2+, and Na+ have an important effect of heart function. Increased
blood levels of Na+ blocks ????? inflow and results in a decrease in the force of
contraction, while an excess of ????? blocks the generation of action potentials.
j. An increase in parasympathetic activity has the following effect on stroke volume: ?????.
An increase in parasympathetic activity ????? atrial contractility. 2. A patient has the misfortune to have both diabetes insipidus and Addison?s disease. How will
those conditions affect the patient?s ability to regulate blood pressure?
????? Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 3. In the correct sequence, list the names of the blood vessels and heart?s chambers that an
RBC would travel through (or flow into other vessels) on its journey from the muscles
located anterior to the right tibia to the heart, then to the left shoulder muscles, and then
back to the heart. Take in consideration only the vessels listed in the Study Guide.
4. Describe the activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells and B cells and briefly
describe the functions of the differentiated cells.
5. Match the items in column A with the descriptions in column B.
Items in column A can be used only once when making matches to column B.
Column A Column B 1. alveolar macrophages ????? serves as a sound resonating chamber;
contains tonsils; directs air inferiorly ????? passes air from pharynx into windpipe;
site of sound production ????? resonate(s) sound; not part of pharynx ????? opening from oral cavity into pharynx ????? carries air to a segment of a lung ????? carries air directly into a respiratory
bronchiole ????? surround the lungs ????? reduces surface tension at sites of gas
exchange ????? actual sites of gas exchange ????? normal, quiet breathing ????? shallow breathing using just the
external intercostal muscles ????? amount of effort required to expand
the lungs and chest wall ????? tidal volume + inspiratory reserve
volume, usually about 3600 mL in
males ????? tidal volume + inspiratory reserve
volume + expiratory reserve volume;
usually about 4800 mL in males ????? residual volume + expiratory reserve
volume; usually about 2400 mL in
males ????? states that the amount of gas that will
dissolve in a liquid is proportional to 2. alveoli
3. Bohr effect
6. cerebral cortex
7. chloride shift
9. costal breathing
14.expiratory reserve volume
16.functional residual capacity
21.inferior, middle, and superior nasal
35.terminal bronchiole Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 2 36.tertiary bronchus
37.total lung capacity
39.vital capacity the partial pressure of that gas and its
????? when pH decreases, O2 saturation of
hemoglobin decreases ????? each gas in a mixture of gases exerts
its own partial pressure ????? sets basic rhythm of breathing ????? includes the pontine respiratory group 6. You eat spaghetti with meatballs in marinara sauce and drink a glass of orange juice.
Describe the chemical components of your meal, the digestive events in the mouth, and the
content of your stomach one hour after you ingest the meal and juice, and describe what
happens to the chemical constituents in the stomach. Describe the digestive processes for
each of these nutrients in the small intestine, and the mechanisms for absorption of
vitamins, water, and electrolytes.
7. Fill in the words or phrases that best complete the sentence.
a ????? is the sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body, while ????? refers to chemical
reactions that decompose large molecules into smaller ones. b ????? is the chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons and it is the opposite of
c ????? is a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms during coupled ????? reactions in the
cell. d ????? is made primarily in the mitochondria by a process called ?????.
e ????? is a set of reactions in which there is the breakdown of glucose into two molecules
of pyruvic acid, and ????? is the formation of glucose molecules from noncarbohydrate
sources. f ????? transport lipids in the bloodstream; they include VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs. In
lipolysis, ????? are split into fatty acids and glycerol. g ????? is the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle; it is also used to synthesize fatty acids,
ketone bodies, and ?????.
h ????? is the primary hormone regulating metabolism during the absorptive state; the
major task of the ????? state is to maintain the normal blood glucose level.
i The metabolic rate observed when a fasting individual is resting but awake and is
experiencing comfortable conditions is called the ?????. Peripheral ????? allows increased
blood flow to superficial tissues of the body to release excess heat. Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 3 j ????? is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid; proper levels of this ion are
critical for nerve impulse conduction and maintenance of ????? balance. 8. Describe the pressures that affect glomerular filtration, and describe the effects of drinking
too much beer on the urinary system.
9. List and briefly describe the mechanisms that prevent acid-base imbalances from appearing
in the body. In addition, indicate where each mechanism functions most significantly. (Do not
explain any specific chemical reactions.)
10.Describe the path of a sperm cell from the site of its maturation to the site of the acrosomal
reaction. Include the major function of each segment in this process and descriptions and
functions of fluids added along that path.
????? Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 4
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