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[answered] Astronomy 101 lab manual, v.4 page 100 NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS


Astronomy 101 Near Earth Asteroids Lab - Please help my by completing this lab


Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 100 NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS OBJECTIVES

 

This laboratory is to examine information on Near Earth asteroids and possible collisions. SKILLS/COMPETENCIES Interpret tables or graphs.

 

Present data by construction of charts and graphs.

 

Evaluate the relevancy of data. BACKGROUND ON NEOS AND NEAS

 

Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) are a special class of comets and

 

asteroids that have been nudged by the gravitational attraction of nearby planets into orbits that

 

allow them to enter the Earth's neighborhood. Composed mostly of water ice with embedded

 

dust particles, comets originally formed in the cold outer planetary system while most of the

 

rocky asteroids formed in the warmer inner solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

 

The scientific interest in comets and asteroids is due largely to their status as the relatively

 

unchanged remnant debris from the solar system formation process some 4.6 billion years ago.

 

The giant outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) formed from an agglomeration of

 

billions of comets and the left over bits and pieces from this formation process are the comets

 

we see today. Likewise, today's asteroids are the bits and pieces left over from the initial

 

agglomeration of the inner planets that include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

 

As the primitive, leftover building blocks of the solar system formation process, comets and

 

asteroids offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion

 

years ago. If we wish to know the composition of the primordial mixture from which the planets

 

formed, then we must determine the chemical constituents of the leftover debris from this

 

formation process - the comets and asteroids.

 

NASA's search program designed to discover 90% of the NEO population (1 km in diameter or

 

larger) within 10 years is under way. The chart below shows the cumulative total known nearEarth asteroids versus time. NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 101 LAB FIGURE 1: NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS UP THROUGH 2005 The upper curve area shows all known near-Earth asteroids while the lower area shows only

 

large near-Earth asteroids. In this context, "large" is defined as an asteroid having an absolute

 

magnitude (H or brightness) of 18.0 or brighter which roughly corresponds to diameters of 1 km

 

or larger.

 

Programs (and year) that search for NEAs include:

 

Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research, LINEAR (1996)

 

Near Earth Asteroid Tracking, NEAT (2001)

 

Spacewatch (1984)

 

Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Object Search, LONEOS (1993)

 

Catalina Sky Surveys, CSS (2003)

 

Japanese Spaceguard Association, JSGA (2000)

 

Italy?s Asiago DLR Asteroid Survey, ADAS (2001) NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 102 TASK 1: INTERPRETING THE NEA GRAPH 1. a. How many total asteroids were discovered by 2000? b. How many total asteroids were discovered by 2006? 2. a. How many large asteroids were discovered by 2000?

 

b. How many large asteroids were discovered by 2006? 3. What was the asteroid detection rate from 2000 to 2006 (for all NEA?s)? 4. Assume that the detection rate stays the same. How many total asteroids will be discovered

 

by 2010? 5. NASA?s original goal was to discover 90% of the NEA?s by the year 2010. If your number for

 

question 4 is 90%, how many undiscovered asteroids are still out there (in 2010)? Please

 

show your work! NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 103 6. a. As more and more of the larger NEAs are discovered, how do you think the shape of the

 

bottom curve will change over to next 10 years? b. The next 50 years? On the next page are the figures showing NEA detections as of June 2013.

 

7. These graphs are presenting slightly different information than the graph of ?Known Near

 

Earth Asteroids? that you looked at before. Please explain the difference. 8. What does Figure 2 show about the rate of discovery for all NEA?s from 2006 to 2013? 9. What does Figure 3 show about the rate of discovery for large NEAs from 2006 to 2013? NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 104 10. Do these updated graphs support your conclusion for questions 6a and 6b? FIGURE 2: NEAS DISCOVERED EVERY 6 MONTHS (01/2012) FIGURE 3: LARGE (>1 KM) NEAS DISCOVERED EVERY 6 MONTHS (01/2012) NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 105 TASK 2: UNDERSTANDING IMPACT PROBABILITIES

 

From your textbook, we have Figure 4 that shows the likelihood of space debris impacting the

 

Earth. FIGURE 4: "CURVE FROM TEXTBOOK" 11. NASA is looking for asteroids one km or larger.

 

a. What would the effects be of a one km asteroid striking the Earth? b. About how large would the crater be? NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 106 c. What is the smallest-sized asteroid that could cause widespread devastation? 12. a. According to Figure 4: "curve from textbook" On average, how often does a 1 km asteroid

 

size strike the Earth? b. A 100 meter diameter asteroid? 13. Based on the graph in figure 4 (the curve from the textbook), do you think the NASA NEO

 

programs using a one km size search criteria is the right decision? Why or why not? 14. Do you think Figure 4 might change as more asteroids are discovered? Why? NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 107 TASK 3: INTERPRETING IMPACT DATA

 

15. How do you think astronomers get their estimates of impact rates? (This is a question about

 

what you think. All thoughtful, well-written answers will receive full credit.) NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 108 One tool for making predictions about impact rates is to study impact events on Earth through

 

astroblemes. An astrobleme is an impact crater (impact basin) is usually a circular depression

 

on the surface of a body caused by a collision of a smaller body (meteorite, asteroid, comet)

 

with the surface. In the center of craters on Earth a crater lake often accumulates, and a central

 

island or peak caused by rebounding crustal rock after the impact is usually a prominent feature

 

in the lake.

 

16. Fill in the data for the fourth column in the table below:

 

Name Location Vredefort

 

Sudbury

 

Chicxulub

 

Popigai

 

Manicouagan

 

Acraman

 

Chesapeake Bay

 

Puchezh-Katunki

 

Morokweng

 

Kara

 

Beaverhead

 

Tookoonooka

 

Charlevoix

 

Siljan

 

Kara-Kul

 

Montagnais

 

Araguainha

 

Woodleigh

 

Mj?lnir

 

Saint Martin

 

Carswell

 

Clearwater West

 

Manson

 

Yarrabubba

 

Slate Islands

 

Shoemaker

 

Keurusselk?

 

Mistastin

 

Clearwater East

 

N?rdlinger Ries

 

Steinheim crater

 

Gatun structure

 

Lonar Crater

 

Meteor Crater

 

Odessa South Africa

 

Canada

 

Mexico

 

Russia

 

Canada

 

Australia

 

US

 

Russia

 

South Africa

 

Russia

 

US

 

Australia

 

Canada

 

Sweden

 

Tajikistan

 

Canada

 

Brazil

 

Australia

 

Norway

 

Canada

 

Canada

 

Canada

 

US

 

Australia

 

Canada

 

Australia

 

Finland

 

Canada

 

Canada

 

Germany

 

Germany

 

Panama

 

India

 

US (Arizona)

 

US NEA Lab Crater

 

Diameter

 

300 km

 

250 km

 

170 km

 

100 km

 

100 km

 

90 km

 

90 km

 

80 km

 

70 km

 

65 km

 

60 km

 

55 km

 

54 km

 

52 km

 

52 km

 

45 km

 

40 km

 

40 km

 

40 km

 

40 km

 

39 km

 

36 km

 

35 km

 

30 km

 

30 km

 

30 km

 

30 km

 

28 km

 

26 km

 

25 km

 

3.8 km

 

3.0 km

 

1.8 km

 

1.2 km

 

0.2 km Estimated Impactor Size

 

(crater diameter / 10) Age (years)

 

2 billion+

 

1.85 billion

 

65 million

 

35.7 million

 

214 million

 

590 million

 

35.5 million

 

167 million

 

145 million

 

70 million

 

600 million

 

128 million

 

342 million

 

361 million

 

5 million

 

50 million

 

244 million

 

364 million

 

142 million

 

220 million

 

115 million

 

290 million

 

73.8 million

 

2 billion

 

450 million

 

1.63 billion

 

1.8 billion

 

28 million

 

290 million

 

14.8 million

 

15 million

 

20 million

 

52,000

 

49,000

 

50,000 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 109 17. Now, you?ll use the table of astrobleme data to make your own estimates about the

 

frequency of impacts.

 

a. Do you think that this is a complete record of impacts on Earth? Explain why or

 

why not. b. Show all your work and/or explain your method for using the information from

 

the table to calculate: how often we should expect to be hit by an object 9-10 km

 

in diameter; how often we should expect to be hit by an object 4.5-5.5 km in

 

diameter; and how often we should expect to be hit by an object 2.8-3.2 km in

 

diameter. NEA Lab 11 pages Astronomy 101 lab manual, v. 6.4 page 110 19. How do your estimates compare to the information from Figure 4: "curve from textbook"?

 

Be specific and, if your estimates a different, explain why you think this might be. NEA Lab 11 pages

 


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