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[answered] Banking (Lehman Brothers) First post: When the topic of the

You are asked to write an argumentative essay (not just a paper) on one of the provided topics.

Argumentative essay has a certain format you must follow. This was explained in the assignment (and the task instructions) with certain sub-titles. Please start with the title page. Then, use and type the sub-titles (or sub-headings):


a-????? An introduction

b-????? A thesis

c-????? Ethical theory

d-????? Two premises

e-????? Comparative analysis

Please add the references in the last page using the correct APA format.

If you don?t follow that format (even if you followed the exact sequence but without sub-headings), as explained above, the assignment will be returned to you to redo.


The Difference between a paper and a thesis

(Both require the demonstration of extent academic research and the evidence of capacity for critical analysis.)

Rules: Each university sets its own rules and regulations for presentation style and the length of a thesis or a paper.






Short, around 10,000 words or less.

Long (some universities has a minimum of 12,000 words)


Independent study

Supervised by the professor


The student selects his/ her own structure.


It is usually written as a part of a subject and does not commonly count as a separate subject or module and thus does not require an individual supervisor.

The professor review and provide advice for the correct structure. The student must follow the suggested format.


The professor?s suggested format is to enable the development or enhancement of the student?s writing and presentation skills and capability of independent research.


The completion of thesis requires the input of original work and author?s findings in the field of chosen topic.




The student provide his/ her own opinion with his/ her research

The research is based on available theories and analyzed by the student. The demand of originality, are much higher than for a research paper.

Banking (Lehman Brothers)


First post:


When the topic of the market collapse of 2008 is brought up the main thing that comes to mind


is Lehman Brothers. For those that do not know, Lehman Brothers was a bank that filed for


Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2008. They lead the charge for the largest bankruptcy filing in United


States history. This was caused by their borrowing more than they should have. Looking at the


ethical theory of virtue ethics which is do unto yourself as you would do to others. Lehman


Brothers did not follow this rule. In the capitalistic nation of America, they could operate. Some


may ask the questions what is capitalism. Per capitalism is ?an economic


system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that


are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods


that are determined mainly by competition in a free market (Merriam-Webster 2003). The


nation of America?s laws in place allowed this company to act in the way that they did causing in


turn America to suffer. America is a capitalistic economy which means that they should not be


involved in the financial matters of a bailout. This put our nation in a trap when the economic


snowball of Lehman Brothers claimed bankruptcy occurred causing many other industries doing


the same leading to the bank rescue of 2008.


Virtue ethics is basically the golden rule and is a business ethic that many would hope bankers


have. Especially the ones making decisions that can impact a wide array of people. Lehman


Brothers suffered not only from their financial mistakes per Seven Pillars Institute ?The real


tragedy lies in the lack of ethical behavior of its executives and professional advisors. They made


conscious decisions to deceive and manipulate, and the consequences proved too dire to


preserve the historical investment bank?s existence. The perennial lesson of the Lehman


Brothers case is that no matter how dire the circumstances may appear; transparency and


accountability are paramount? (Montgomery, 2011) The characteristics of virtue theory go


against this in every way. A virtue ethicist would have said to the banker to be transparent with


the fact that the business is going under and not to tell lies because that person would not have


liked to be lied to. If this were the case, the problem might not have escalated as far as it did in


the past. References:


Merriam-Webster (2003) Merriam-Webster?s Collegiate Dictionary (11th edn). Springfield, MA:


Merriam-Webster. (accessed 10 January 2014). Montgomery, A. (2011, November 26). The Dearth of Ethics and the Death of Lehman Brothers.


Retrieved from


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Sep 18, 2020





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