## [answered] BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Sec

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BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016

Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam

Name________________________________________Section_________________

Key Terms / Concepts:

Latitude

Longitude

Equator

Prime Meridian Tropic of Cancer

Tropic of Capricorn

International Date Line Latitude and Longitude

Lines of latitude and longitude are a standard grid system that marks locations measuring from the

Prime (Greenwich) Meridian and the Equator. Lines of latitude (parallels) measure distances

north and south of the equator. Because the earth is a sphere, these parallels do not cross each other

and are complete circles with no beginning or end. They are measured from 0? (the equator) to 90?

north (North Pole) and 90? south (South Pole). Lines of longitude (meridians) measure distances east

and west of the Prime Meridian. Meridians mark locations a maximum of 180? east or 180? west of

the Prime Meridian to the International Date Line. The Prime Meridian is also referred to as the

Greenwich Meridian as it runs directly through Greenwich, England. Coordinates are the

intersections of latitude and longitude and are measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. One degree

can be divided into 60 minutes (60?) and one minute can be divided further to 60 seconds (60?).

1. Lines of longitude measure distances starting at the _____________________ and continuing

to the ___________________________, which is both ________________? West and

________________? East longitude.

2. Lines of latitude measure distances __________________ (east, west, north, south) starting

from the _________________________ (equator or prime meridian).

3. Lines of ______________ eventually converge while lines of __________________ maintain

equal distance from each other.

4. Using an atlas or internet maps, identify the following geographic grid coordinates by location

(city and country; city and state; water body):

a. 47? 30? N, 11? 6? E

_______________________

b. 12? 33? S, 131? 7? E

_______________________

c. 45? 32? S, 122? 40? W

_______________________

d. 3? 9? N, 70? 53? W

_______________________

e. 72? 38? N, 85? 25? E

_______________________

5. What are the geographic grid coordinates for Georgia State University?

______________________

6. What are the geographic grid coordinates for Indiana, PA? ______________________ 1 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016

Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam

7. Using the 1?x 1?grid to the right, write the latitude and longitude coordinates for each point.

Each point should be to written out in degree, minute format with the correct hemisphere

associated. (i.e.; 43o 10? N, 10o 30? W). (1 pt. per blank)

A._________________________

B._________________________

C._________________________

D._________________________

E._________________________ 8. Convert the following back into degrees, minutes, and seconds:

a. 33.755? N, 84.39? W _________________________

b. 45.55? S, 55.45? E

_________________________

c. 47.50? N, 11.10? E

_________________________

9. The circumference of the earth at the equator is 24,902 miles.

*How many miles are in 1o of latitude at the equator? *Why or why not is it constant for latitude? *Why is this number not constant for longitude? 10. Calculate the circumference of the following latitudes. (Show Work)

a. 1o = 27.66 miles at 66.5?N/S

b. 1o = 63.47 miles at 23.5?N/S 2 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016

Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam

Axial tilt is the 23.5? offset of the imaginary line that runs through the North and South Poles. As the

Earth revolves around the Sun, the planet maintains this tilt at the same angle with its axis fixed and

pointed to the North Star (Polaris). Four parallels (Antarctic Circle, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of

Cancer, and Arctic Circle) mark certain limits of the sun?s rays hitting the Earth. Their position is a

direct result of the axial tilt. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn are located at 23.5?

North and South respectively of the Equator. These two lines mark the furthest points north and south

that the sun reaches a 90? angle to the earth. The Arctic and Antarctic Circles mark the locations

that for part of the year receive 24 hours of daylight or darkness.

11. Using the following diagram, draw and label the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, Arctic

Circle and Antarctic Circle, by both name and latitude. The Equator and axis are drawn for

you. 0? 12. a. What do the parallels identified as the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer indicate? b. What do the parallels identified as the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle indicate? c. What is the relationship between the tilt of the Earth and the Tropics of Capricorn and

Cancer? 3 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016

Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Duration and Length of Day and Night

During the solar year, day length is constantly changing depending on the angle of the sun relative to

a place. Twice a year (in the spring and fall), equal daylight and darkness occur over the entire planet

(Autumnal and Vernal or Spring Equinox). Twice a year, the longest daylight will occur either in the southern or northern hemisphere

(Winter and Summer Solstice), depending on the declination of the sun. The longest daylight is on that hemisphere?s Summer Solstice (and the other hemisphere?s

Winter Solstice). The Winter Solstice has the shortest day length of the year, and then day

length increases until the Vernal Equinox. Day length continues to increase to the Summer Solstice. After that passes, day length

decreases until night and day are equal at the Autumnal equinox. Day length continues to

decrease until it is once again the Winter Solstice.

13. Lines of latitude and longitude are imaginary lines

used to given a geographical coordinates of a

location. No matter what the axial tilt is, our

geographical coordinates do not change. Two other

things will not change: the equator is 0? latitude

and 90? N latitude is the North Pole and 90? S

latitude is the South Pole. However, over time, our

axial tilt has changed and may be responsible for

changes in past climates. Draw and label the parallels

of the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and the Tropics of

Capricorn and Cancer if the axial tilt would change to

30?. 14. Assuming the axial tilt changed to 30?, explain how that would affect the insolation received

in Atlanta throughout the year? What would happen if the axial tilt of the earth was 30o, how

would that affect humans on a global scale? (12 pts) 4 0? BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016

Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam

Key Terms / Concepts:

Unit Conversion

Large Scale

Small Scale

Contour Lines

Elevation Relative Location

Representative Fraction

Slope

Contour interval

% Grade Metric System

English System

Unit Conversions

Fahrenheit

Celsius Unit Conversions

In the United States, we use two systems of measurement. The first and most commonly used form of

measurement is the English System. The English System is what is used in everyday life by most

Americans. The English System is comprised of measurements such as: feet, ounces, acres, i.e.. The

other system is called the Metric System; this system of measurement is the standard form of

measurement throughout the world. The Metric System is also the standard system of measurement

used by the scientific community throughout the world. The Metric System is comprised of

measurements such as: meters, liters, hectares, and so forth.

There are also three forms of temperature measurement used in the United States. The first and most

commonly used is the Fahrenheit System, which is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (oF). This

method of measuring temperature is what is usually used on your nightly news? weather report. The

second system of measurement used is the Celsius System, which is expressed in degrees Celsius

(oC). This method of measuring temperature is used by many scientists and meteorologists. The third

method of temperature measurement is the Kelvin System. This system of temperature measurement

is used by scientists, especially chemists and physicists, for measuring the proportion of total heat in

a system. We will not use Kelvin in this class.

English to English

12 inches = 1 foot

63,360 inches = 1mile

5,280 feet = 1 mile

3 feet = 1 yard

English to Metric

Inches to Centimeters = Multiply by 2.54

Feet to Meters = Multiply by 0.3048

Miles to Meters = Multiply by 1610

Miles to Kilometers = Multiply by 1.610 Metric to Metric

10 millimeters = 1 centimeter

1,000 millimeters = 1 meter

100 centimeters = 1 meter

100,000 centimeters = 1 kilometer

1,000 meters = 1 kilometer

Metric to English

Centimeter to Inches = Multiply by 0.3937

Meters to Feet = Multiply by 3.281

Meters to Miles = Multiply by 0.000621

Kilometers to Miles = Multiply by 0.621 Fahrenheit to Celsius

C = (F ? 32) / 1.8 Celsius to Fahrenheit

F = (C * 1.8) + 32 5 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam

Name ________________________________ Section (Day/Time) ____________________ Use the conversion factors on the previous page to complete the following conversions.

English to English Metric to Metric 1. 6 ft. = __________ in. 13. 10 cm = __________ mm 2. 10 mi. = __________ ft. 14. 71 cm = __________ m 3. 2,640 ft. = __________ mi. 15. 10,250 m = __________ km 4. 31,680 in. = __________ mi. 16. 0.6 km = __________ m English to Metric Metric to English 5. 7 in. = __________ cm 17. 50 cm = __________ in. 6. 6 ft. 6 in. = __________ m 18. 15 m = __________ ft. 7. 65 mi. = __________ km 19. 42.2 km = __________ mi. 8. 6.2 mi. = __________ m 20. 161 km = __________ mi. Fahrenheit to Celsius

= __________ o C 21. 100o C = __________ o F 10. -40o F = __________ o C 22. 28 o C = __________ o F 11. 212o F = __________ o C 12. 28o F = __________ o C 9. 32o F Celsius to Fahrenheit 6 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Maps

A map is a line drawing, to some scale, of an area of the earth?s surface. Geographers and

Cartographers create maps of vastly different types to suit different purposes. For example, road

maps, while useful for driving, are terrible for hiking a mountain. When using a map it is essential to

understand the advantages, limitations, and faults of the various types. Scale and Location

The map scale tells what the equivalent on the map is to the true distance. Scale can be measured as a

representative fraction (i.e. 1:32,000), verbal (i.e. one inch equals ten miles), or as a graphic or bar

scale. A representative fraction has no standard assigned units. Any unit of measurement can be

applied, however, they be the same unit for both sides of the equation.

Scale can also be used to describe the detail of a map. Large scale maps show great detail over a

small area. For example, a map of the campus shows the locations of buildings and streets on campus

but would not show the location of the building within the whole state of Texas. Small scale maps

show little detail over a large area. For instance, a world map could show the location and names of

countries but could not show the location of all the major cities of the U.S. 23. What is the representative fraction on this scale? ____________________________________

24. In which specific situation would you use a small scale map? _____________________________

___________________________________________________________________________

25. In which specific situation would you use a large scale map?_____________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ Information Corner 7 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Contour Lines and Elevation

Topographic maps show elevation graphically with lines.

The lines used to illustrate elevation, contour lines, connect

points of equal elevation. The contour interval is the

vertical distance between two contour lines, i.e. if each line

represents a change of 100 feet in elevation, then the

contour interval is 100 feet. Topographic maps show both

the form of the land and the elevation changes of a region.

Conceptualizing landforms from contour lines is very

important. When contour lines are close together, the slope is

steep (because elevation is changing rapidly). Gentle slopes have widely spaced contour lines. Contour lines end on the map, only at the map edges

and sometimes at overhanging cliffs, AND display

internal consistency on the map page. Contour lines never cross. Information Corner

Contour characteristic terminology:

a) Depression - a low place in the ground

having no outlet for surface drainage.

b) Hill - a naturally occurring mass of earth

whose crest or summit is at a lower

elevation than a mountain.

c) Mesa - a flat-topped mountain bounded on

all sides by steep terrain.

d) Ridge - long narrow elevation of land, often

located on a mountainside.

e) Saddle - ridge between two hills or

summits.

f) Valley - stretch of low land lying between

hills or mountains and sometimes occupied

by a stream. For Questions #26-33, use the topographic map extract at the top of the next page.

26. What is the contour interval? ____________________________________

Match the correct elevation to the appropriate letter for each question below.

27. 2440 ft. ___

8 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 28. 2180 ft. ___

29. 2280 ft. ___

30. 2660 ft. ___

31. 2360 ft. ___

32. 2220 ft. ___

33. What is the highest contour line, LABELLED OR UNLABELLED, on the topographic map?

_______________ Answer questions #34 and #35 using the dotted map below, NOT the one above. Use a contour

interval of 10 feet, starting with an elevation of 520 feet. You are NOT actually connecting anything

on the dotted map! 9 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 600 580 34. Which

contour

line(s) are

missing? 575

560 530

550 589 580

540

560

560 569

530 35. Name the

point(s) that

do NOT

have contour

lines. 555

550 540

540

540

530

530

520 520 Slope RIS

E Percent grade tells the slope of a hill or mountain. The slope indicates how quickly or slowly a

given area is increasing in elevation over a specific distance. This is measured through basic

geometry techniques of slope (rise / run). The diagram below shows how slope is measured using a

topographic

map.

A B

R

U

N

Rise

= The Change in Elevation [always a positive number!]

= Elevation of A ? Elevation of B

Run = Ground Distance from A to B

*** Units must be the same (i.e. meters, meters, miles, etc?)

The elevation of ?A? is 1000 ft.; the elevation of ?B? is 500 ft.; the distance between the two is 2.5

miles. Use those figures to answer the following questions. Show all work.

10 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 36. _________ Lowest elevation

37. _________ Highest elevation

38. _________ Rise [Elevation of A ? Elevation of B]

39. _________ Run [What is the 1st thing you do?]

40. _________ % Grade [rise/run X 100]

41. _________ Feet per mile

a. [The same equation as rise/run, but DO NOT CHANGE THE UNITS!!!!! and do not

multiply by 100]

Material north of the Equator will NOT be asked on the First Exam. Material south of the Equator WILL be asked on the First Exam. Land Boundaries Types of boundaries

o ____________________boundary

o Straight-line boundaries

o Totally unrelated to any aspects of physical or cultural landscapes

Physical-political boundary or natural-political boundary

o Outlined by a physiographic landscape features (river, mountain ridge, etc.)

o Convenient, but nature and meaning might change over time

Cultural-political boundary

o Formerly ?__________________________________? boundaries

o Mark breaks in the human landscape Land Boundaries: How Do We Construct Them? Three steps of boundary evolution

o Define it Exact location established, via treaty-like legal documents, describing

(absolute or relative) actual points

o Delimit it Officially put on a map, by a __________________________

o Demarcate it Utilize a physiographic landscape feature, or??.

11 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Utilize actual ground markers for geometric and cultural-political boundaries

{fences, pillars, walls, etc.} if so desired.

o Numerous boundaries are NOT demarcated IMAGE Q&amp;A: The Four Corners: What type of boundary?

Weaknesses of Boundaries Boundary disputes

o Four principal forms of boundary disputes Definitional Focus on the ?legalese? of the agreement Locational Focus on the delimitation and/or demarcation of the border Operational Focus on neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should

function Allocational Focus on resources that straddle neighbors International Boundary Limits Have a vertical plane cutting through the rocks below, and the airspace above IMAGE: A different boundary: The Equator near Quito, Ecuador between the Northern and Southern

Hemispheres. 12

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