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[answered] BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Sec

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Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam




Key Terms / Concepts:








Prime Meridian Tropic of Cancer


Tropic of Capricorn


International Date Line Latitude and Longitude


Lines of latitude and longitude are a standard grid system that marks locations measuring from the


Prime (Greenwich) Meridian and the Equator. Lines of latitude (parallels) measure distances


north and south of the equator. Because the earth is a sphere, these parallels do not cross each other


and are complete circles with no beginning or end. They are measured from 0? (the equator) to 90?


north (North Pole) and 90? south (South Pole). Lines of longitude (meridians) measure distances east


and west of the Prime Meridian. Meridians mark locations a maximum of 180? east or 180? west of


the Prime Meridian to the International Date Line. The Prime Meridian is also referred to as the


Greenwich Meridian as it runs directly through Greenwich, England. Coordinates are the


intersections of latitude and longitude and are measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. One degree


can be divided into 60 minutes (60?) and one minute can be divided further to 60 seconds (60?).


1. Lines of longitude measure distances starting at the _____________________ and continuing


to the ___________________________, which is both ________________? West and


________________? East longitude.


2. Lines of latitude measure distances __________________ (east, west, north, south) starting


from the _________________________ (equator or prime meridian).


3. Lines of ______________ eventually converge while lines of __________________ maintain


equal distance from each other.


4. Using an atlas or internet maps, identify the following geographic grid coordinates by location


(city and country; city and state; water body):


a. 47? 30? N, 11? 6? E




b. 12? 33? S, 131? 7? E




c. 45? 32? S, 122? 40? W




d. 3? 9? N, 70? 53? W




e. 72? 38? N, 85? 25? E




5. What are the geographic grid coordinates for Georgia State University?




6. What are the geographic grid coordinates for Indiana, PA? ______________________ 1 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016


Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam


7. Using the 1?x 1?grid to the right, write the latitude and longitude coordinates for each point.


Each point should be to written out in degree, minute format with the correct hemisphere


associated. (i.e.; 43o 10? N, 10o 30? W). (1 pt. per blank)










E._________________________ 8. Convert the following back into degrees, minutes, and seconds:


a. 33.755? N, 84.39? W _________________________


b. 45.55? S, 55.45? E




c. 47.50? N, 11.10? E




9. The circumference of the earth at the equator is 24,902 miles.


*How many miles are in 1o of latitude at the equator? *Why or why not is it constant for latitude? *Why is this number not constant for longitude? 10. Calculate the circumference of the following latitudes. (Show Work)


a. 1o = 27.66 miles at 66.5?N/S


b. 1o = 63.47 miles at 23.5?N/S 2 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016


Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam


Axial tilt is the 23.5? offset of the imaginary line that runs through the North and South Poles. As the


Earth revolves around the Sun, the planet maintains this tilt at the same angle with its axis fixed and


pointed to the North Star (Polaris). Four parallels (Antarctic Circle, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of


Cancer, and Arctic Circle) mark certain limits of the sun?s rays hitting the Earth. Their position is a


direct result of the axial tilt. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn are located at 23.5?


North and South respectively of the Equator. These two lines mark the furthest points north and south


that the sun reaches a 90? angle to the earth. The Arctic and Antarctic Circles mark the locations


that for part of the year receive 24 hours of daylight or darkness.


11. Using the following diagram, draw and label the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer, Arctic


Circle and Antarctic Circle, by both name and latitude. The Equator and axis are drawn for


you. 0? 12. a. What do the parallels identified as the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer indicate? b. What do the parallels identified as the Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle indicate? c. What is the relationship between the tilt of the Earth and the Tropics of Capricorn and


Cancer? 3 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016


Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Duration and Length of Day and Night


During the solar year, day length is constantly changing depending on the angle of the sun relative to


a place. Twice a year (in the spring and fall), equal daylight and darkness occur over the entire planet


(Autumnal and Vernal or Spring Equinox). Twice a year, the longest daylight will occur either in the southern or northern hemisphere


(Winter and Summer Solstice), depending on the declination of the sun. The longest daylight is on that hemisphere?s Summer Solstice (and the other hemisphere?s


Winter Solstice). The Winter Solstice has the shortest day length of the year, and then day


length increases until the Vernal Equinox. Day length continues to increase to the Summer Solstice. After that passes, day length


decreases until night and day are equal at the Autumnal equinox. Day length continues to


decrease until it is once again the Winter Solstice.


13. Lines of latitude and longitude are imaginary lines


used to given a geographical coordinates of a


location. No matter what the axial tilt is, our


geographical coordinates do not change. Two other


things will not change: the equator is 0? latitude


and 90? N latitude is the North Pole and 90? S


latitude is the South Pole. However, over time, our


axial tilt has changed and may be responsible for


changes in past climates. Draw and label the parallels


of the Arctic and Antarctic Circles and the Tropics of


Capricorn and Cancer if the axial tilt would change to


30?. 14. Assuming the axial tilt changed to 30?, explain how that would affect the insolation received


in Atlanta throughout the year? What would happen if the axial tilt of the earth was 30o, how


would that affect humans on a global scale? (12 pts) 4 0? BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016


Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam


Key Terms / Concepts:


Unit Conversion


Large Scale


Small Scale


Contour Lines


Elevation Relative Location


Representative Fraction




Contour interval


% Grade Metric System


English System


Unit Conversions




Celsius Unit Conversions


In the United States, we use two systems of measurement. The first and most commonly used form of


measurement is the English System. The English System is what is used in everyday life by most


Americans. The English System is comprised of measurements such as: feet, ounces, acres, i.e.. The


other system is called the Metric System; this system of measurement is the standard form of


measurement throughout the world. The Metric System is also the standard system of measurement


used by the scientific community throughout the world. The Metric System is comprised of


measurements such as: meters, liters, hectares, and so forth.


There are also three forms of temperature measurement used in the United States. The first and most


commonly used is the Fahrenheit System, which is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (oF). This


method of measuring temperature is what is usually used on your nightly news? weather report. The


second system of measurement used is the Celsius System, which is expressed in degrees Celsius


(oC). This method of measuring temperature is used by many scientists and meteorologists. The third


method of temperature measurement is the Kelvin System. This system of temperature measurement


is used by scientists, especially chemists and physicists, for measuring the proportion of total heat in


a system. We will not use Kelvin in this class.


English to English


12 inches = 1 foot


63,360 inches = 1mile


5,280 feet = 1 mile


3 feet = 1 yard


English to Metric


Inches to Centimeters = Multiply by 2.54


Feet to Meters = Multiply by 0.3048


Miles to Meters = Multiply by 1610


Miles to Kilometers = Multiply by 1.610 Metric to Metric


10 millimeters = 1 centimeter


1,000 millimeters = 1 meter


100 centimeters = 1 meter


100,000 centimeters = 1 kilometer


1,000 meters = 1 kilometer


Metric to English


Centimeter to Inches = Multiply by 0.3937


Meters to Feet = Multiply by 3.281


Meters to Miles = Multiply by 0.000621


Kilometers to Miles = Multiply by 0.621 Fahrenheit to Celsius


C = (F ? 32) / 1.8 Celsius to Fahrenheit


F = (C * 1.8) + 32 5 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam


Name ________________________________ Section (Day/Time) ____________________ Use the conversion factors on the previous page to complete the following conversions.


English to English Metric to Metric 1. 6 ft. = __________ in. 13. 10 cm = __________ mm 2. 10 mi. = __________ ft. 14. 71 cm = __________ m 3. 2,640 ft. = __________ mi. 15. 10,250 m = __________ km 4. 31,680 in. = __________ mi. 16. 0.6 km = __________ m English to Metric Metric to English 5. 7 in. = __________ cm 17. 50 cm = __________ in. 6. 6 ft. 6 in. = __________ m 18. 15 m = __________ ft. 7. 65 mi. = __________ km 19. 42.2 km = __________ mi. 8. 6.2 mi. = __________ m 20. 161 km = __________ mi. Fahrenheit to Celsius


= __________ o C 21. 100o C = __________ o F 10. -40o F = __________ o C 22. 28 o C = __________ o F 11. 212o F = __________ o C 12. 28o F = __________ o C 9. 32o F Celsius to Fahrenheit 6 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Maps


A map is a line drawing, to some scale, of an area of the earth?s surface. Geographers and


Cartographers create maps of vastly different types to suit different purposes. For example, road


maps, while useful for driving, are terrible for hiking a mountain. When using a map it is essential to


understand the advantages, limitations, and faults of the various types. Scale and Location


The map scale tells what the equivalent on the map is to the true distance. Scale can be measured as a


representative fraction (i.e. 1:32,000), verbal (i.e. one inch equals ten miles), or as a graphic or bar


scale. A representative fraction has no standard assigned units. Any unit of measurement can be


applied, however, they be the same unit for both sides of the equation.


Scale can also be used to describe the detail of a map. Large scale maps show great detail over a


small area. For example, a map of the campus shows the locations of buildings and streets on campus


but would not show the location of the building within the whole state of Texas. Small scale maps


show little detail over a large area. For instance, a world map could show the location and names of


countries but could not show the location of all the major cities of the U.S. 23. What is the representative fraction on this scale? ____________________________________


24. In which specific situation would you use a small scale map? _____________________________




25. In which specific situation would you use a large scale map?_____________________________


___________________________________________________________________________ Information Corner 7 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Contour Lines and Elevation


Topographic maps show elevation graphically with lines.


The lines used to illustrate elevation, contour lines, connect


points of equal elevation. The contour interval is the


vertical distance between two contour lines, i.e. if each line


represents a change of 100 feet in elevation, then the


contour interval is 100 feet. Topographic maps show both


the form of the land and the elevation changes of a region.


Conceptualizing landforms from contour lines is very


important. When contour lines are close together, the slope is


steep (because elevation is changing rapidly). Gentle slopes have widely spaced contour lines. Contour lines end on the map, only at the map edges


and sometimes at overhanging cliffs, AND display


internal consistency on the map page. Contour lines never cross. Information Corner


Contour characteristic terminology:


a) Depression - a low place in the ground


having no outlet for surface drainage.


b) Hill - a naturally occurring mass of earth


whose crest or summit is at a lower


elevation than a mountain.


c) Mesa - a flat-topped mountain bounded on


all sides by steep terrain.


d) Ridge - long narrow elevation of land, often


located on a mountainside.


e) Saddle - ridge between two hills or




f) Valley - stretch of low land lying between


hills or mountains and sometimes occupied


by a stream. For Questions #26-33, use the topographic map extract at the top of the next page.


26. What is the contour interval? ____________________________________


Match the correct elevation to the appropriate letter for each question below.


27. 2440 ft. ___


8 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 28. 2180 ft. ___


29. 2280 ft. ___


30. 2660 ft. ___


31. 2360 ft. ___


32. 2220 ft. ___


33. What is the highest contour line, LABELLED OR UNLABELLED, on the topographic map?


_______________ Answer questions #34 and #35 using the dotted map below, NOT the one above. Use a contour


interval of 10 feet, starting with an elevation of 520 feet. You are NOT actually connecting anything


on the dotted map! 9 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 600 580 34. Which




line(s) are


missing? 575


560 530


550 589 580






560 569


530 35. Name the


point(s) that


do NOT


have contour


lines. 555


550 540










520 520 Slope RIS


E Percent grade tells the slope of a hill or mountain. The slope indicates how quickly or slowly a


given area is increasing in elevation over a specific distance. This is measured through basic


geometry techniques of slope (rise / run). The diagram below shows how slope is measured using a
















= The Change in Elevation [always a positive number!]


= Elevation of A ? Elevation of B


Run = Ground Distance from A to B


*** Units must be the same (i.e. meters, meters, miles, etc?)


The elevation of ?A? is 1000 ft.; the elevation of ?B? is 500 ft.; the distance between the two is 2.5


miles. Use those figures to answer the following questions. Show all work.


10 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam 36. _________ Lowest elevation


37. _________ Highest elevation


38. _________ Rise [Elevation of A ? Elevation of B]


39. _________ Run [What is the 1st thing you do?]


40. _________ % Grade [rise/run X 100]


41. _________ Feet per mile


a. [The same equation as rise/run, but DO NOT CHANGE THE UNITS!!!!! and do not


multiply by 100]


Material north of the Equator will NOT be asked on the First Exam. Material south of the Equator WILL be asked on the First Exam. Land Boundaries Types of boundaries


o ____________________boundary


o Straight-line boundaries


o Totally unrelated to any aspects of physical or cultural landscapes


Physical-political boundary or natural-political boundary


o Outlined by a physiographic landscape features (river, mountain ridge, etc.)


o Convenient, but nature and meaning might change over time


Cultural-political boundary


o Formerly ?__________________________________? boundaries


o Mark breaks in the human landscape Land Boundaries: How Do We Construct Them? Three steps of boundary evolution


o Define it Exact location established, via treaty-like legal documents, describing


(absolute or relative) actual points


o Delimit it Officially put on a map, by a __________________________


o Demarcate it Utilize a physiographic landscape feature, or??.


11 BEGINNINGS, FALL 2016 Due by 11:59pm the day after your Second Exam Utilize actual ground markers for geometric and cultural-political boundaries


{fences, pillars, walls, etc.} if so desired.


o Numerous boundaries are NOT demarcated IMAGE Q&A: The Four Corners: What type of boundary?


Weaknesses of Boundaries Boundary disputes


o Four principal forms of boundary disputes Definitional Focus on the ?legalese? of the agreement Locational Focus on the delimitation and/or demarcation of the border Operational Focus on neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should


function Allocational Focus on resources that straddle neighbors International Boundary Limits Have a vertical plane cutting through the rocks below, and the airspace above IMAGE: A different boundary: The Equator near Quito, Ecuador between the Northern and Southern


Hemispheres. 12


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