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[answered] BIO181-06LC, Fall 2016 Anatomy & Physiology I P


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BIO181-06LC, Fall 2016

 

Anatomy & Physiology I

 

Prof. Patricio Mujica

 

EXAM 2 ? EXTRA CREDIT

 

Context

 

When you feel thirst, your instinct of self-preservation compels you to hydrate your body by drinking copious

 

amounts of Coca-Cola. To do this, your brain instructs your muscles to perform a specific set of movements

 

which involve extending your arm, grabbing the glass, and bringing it close to your mouth to ingest the healthy,

 

deliciously cold soft drink. The executive order is generated in the motor control centers of your cerebral

 

cortex, which then relay this information to the motor tracts that travel down your spinal cord to the level of the

 

cervical vertebrae, where a synapse is established with the motor neurons that innervate your brachialis,

 

biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles, which in turn contract or extend in order to perform fine-tuned

 

movement. This movement involves the action of the arm muscles on your forearm bones across the elbow

 

joint (for the sake of simplicity we will ignore the hand movements).

 

Knowing:

 

? that the synapse between the upper (spinal) motor neuron and the lower (peripheral) motor neuron

 

requires the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh); and

 

? that ACh binds its ionotropic receptor AChR,

 

Explain with all possible detail the following sequence of events:

 

a) the transmission of the nerve impulse from the upper to the lower (peripheral) motor neuron

 

b) the generation and propagation of the nerve impulse through the peripheral motor neuron

 

c) the events that occur at the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of all motor units involved in the

 

process

 

d) the events that follow NMJ activity and lead to contraction of muscle fibers at the brachialis, biceps

 

brachii and triceps brachii muscles; don't forget to point out which of these muscles exert the main

 

force, and which ones add fine-tuning or opposing forces

 

e) what are the structures involved in the transmission of tension from the contracting muscles to the

 

bones in the forearm? Be explicit with the anatomy of muscles, bones and joints and its supporting

 

structures, including muscle origin and insertions, and proximal and distal articulations

 

f) what happens in the muscles after you have quenched your thirst and decide to relax your muscles?

 

Provide evidence of your knowledge about the molecular processes involved, when pertinent. For

 

example: generation of action potentials, in both neurons and muscle fibers, involves membrane depolarization

 

due to opening of ion channels. You must specify what type of channels, the effect on channel opening on

 

membrane potential, how the membrane repolarizes and how the effect is propagated along the membrane,

 

etc; same thing for neurotransmission at the NMJ, excitation-contraction coupling and all molecular events

 

involved in the processes outlined above. Use the Amerman textbook as a guide and provide a complete

 

answer. No credit will be given to partially complete answers.

 

You must hand-write this assignment. I will not accept typed work. There will be no limit on the number of

 

pages given the scope of this assignment, but I ask you to be mindful of both your time and mine when it

 

comes to the length of your submission.

 

Deadline: Saturday, November 19, 11 AM (immediately after class). You might accrue up to 10 extra points

 

(equivalent to 10 correct exam questions).

 


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