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[answered] Business Cycles CEOs' Economic Outlook Dims as More Pl

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Business Cycles CEOs? Economic Outlook Dims as More Plan


to Pull Back Investment


?Companies are putting capital budgets together right now and don?t have a clear line of sight


on what their tax bill will be on those investments,? he said on a call with reporters Tuesday.


?When the tax code is uncompetitive, like ours is, it has the effect of incentivizing


investment elsewhere? in the world.


In this problem, we are going to assume that a 'supply sider' wins the election and immediately


lowers the effective tax on capital to make our tax code MORE competitive (recall that the US


has the second highest effective tax rate (on capital) in the world according to our textbook).


a) (30 POINTS) In this part you are to explain exactly how lowering the effective tax rate on capital (?)


will work (in theory) its way through the economy. In this discussion, you need to differentiate between


the short- run and long-run. In the space below, explain, with graphical analysis, how lowering the


effective tax rate on capital will influence real economic variables in the short run (hint, it?s a demand


side story). Draw 4 diagrams (label them 1 through 4), with 1) a user cost ; desired capital (K*) diagram,


followed by 2) a closed economy desired saving; desired investment diagram, followed by 3) an IS ? LM


diagram followed by 4) an aggregate supply ; aggregate demand diagram.


Start at an initial equilibrium and label as point A in all diagrams, with all the associated market clearing


variables denoted by subscript A. For example, in your IS ? LM diagram, the interest rate that clears the


goods and money market is labeled as rA with the associated output at YA. Note that YA, our initial


equilibrium output, is below full employment output = YB (we still have slack in the economy, in


fact the GDP gap is currently, as of Dec 2015, -3%). Now let the effective tax rate on capital fall (same


as a fall in ?) and show how all your graphs are affected. In particular, locate point B as the new short-run


equilibrium in all graphs (assume the standard; that is, let output rise to YB = full employment Y) while


holding the general price level fixed at P A = PB. Make sure you refer to each diagram individually


explaining how and why we get to point B (i.e., provide intuitive economic reasoning starting with how


a lower ? effects K* and why)!). Be sure to include a discussion of why the real interest rate has to


change the way it does - hint, the money market! b) (20 POINTS) Now we are going to focus on the idea that in the longer run, the influence of the


decrease in the effective tax rate on capital will have ?supply-side? effects. In particular, we argue that


this new investment, spurred on by the lower effective tax rate on capital, will result in a positive


productivity shock resulting in a higher ?A and K" which will result in a shift upward in the production


function (via increasing the MPKf and MPN?.these are the supply side effects) In the space below


draw a production function with the labor market diagram directly below it and show what is going on in


this longer run. That is, locate the corresponding point B (from above), and then show the longer run


influence as point C in these two (supply ? side) diagrams. What happens to N* and w*=W/P? Explain


in detail. Are these results in the labor market consistent an increase in the welfare of workers? Why or


why not? Are these results consistent with the business cycle facts? Now explain why output has changed, give two specific reasons. Note, in this part of the problem, do not worry about identifying point


A in the labor market diagram and production function diagram since point A does not exist given the


assumption that labor markets always clear at full employment (i.e., a weakness of the classical model).


Be sure to label your graphs completely (relevant shift variables) or points will be taken off. c) (20 POINTS) Now show how graphs 1) through 4) are influenced by this longer-run development.


Note again that we assume that before these longer run developments take hold, the FE line in graph 3)


and the LRAS in graph 4) is set at YB. Now let these longer run developments take hold, i.e., these supply


side effects, and label this final equilibrium as point C. Again, please make sure you refer to each


diagram individually explaining how and why we get to point C (i.e., provide intuitive economic


reasoning!). Be sure to include a discussion of why the real interest rate has to change the way it


does - hint, the money market!


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