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[answered] Lab 24: Titration Concepts to explore: Understand the proce

I did most of the lab but am having trouble with the calculations at the end. I attached the doc, so that my confusion would have some context to back it up. Could you please help me with the last few problems where it says to "repeat the steps"? I am not sure if I answered the question (question #4) correctly the first time.?

Thanks in advance!

Lab 24: Titration


Concepts to explore:




? Understand the process of titration. ? Use titration with a standard Na 2CO3 solution to determine whether Swee?


Tarts? or Smarties? candies has more moles of acid per gram of candy. Use titration with a standard Na 2CO3 solution to determine whether Swee?


Tarts? or Smarties? candies requires more standard base per gram of candy


to reach the endpoint. Introduction


When do you use something known to find


something unknown?


Every day we face things that are unknown to us, and every


day we use what we do know to determine the unknown.


When you wake up in the morning and see that it is cloudy,


you speculate that you might need an umbrella because


there is a possibility of rain. You do not know that it is going


to rain, but you do know that it is cloudy and cloudy days


often lead to rainy days. You use what you know to deter?


mine what you do not know. In the same way, in an acid/


base titration, we determine the unknown concentration of


an acid or base with a known concentration of the opposite


acid or base. Figure 1: Swimming pool test kits are like a small titration ex?


periment. Kits like this first use a phenol red indicator to meas?


ure the acidity of the pool water. Next, a titrant is gradually


added by drop; the number of drops tells you how much acid


or base mixture needs to be added to the pool water to


achieve the ideal pH. You will use candy in this lab exercise?not to eat, but to


determine its acid concentration. In general, to find an un?


known one must know how it relates to a known. Remem?


ber when acids and bases are combined, a neutralization


reaction occurs. To determine the concentration of acid in an acidic candy solution, a base of known concentration, called


a standard solution, is added in small quantities until complete neutralization occurs. This procedure is called an acid?base


titration. When neutralization occurs, the equivalence point of the titration has been reached.


When the standard solution is reacted with an acid or base, how do you know when the neutralization reaction is com?


plete? An additional substance is required for a titration ? an acid?base indicator. An indicator provides a sudden color


change when a certain pH is reached. The pH at which the indicator changes color, known as the end point of the titration,


depends on the chemical nature of the indicator. An indicator for a titration should be chosen that changes color at a pH




near the equivalence point. At the equivalence point, one can assume that the total number of H ions donated by the acid




equals the total number of H ions accepted by the base.


But even more information can be learned from the titrations. You can even calculate how many moles of acid there is per


gram of candy if the type of acid in the candy is known. To do this, the following equation is used: In the above equation: moles acid = axMxV






249 Lab 24: Titration


a = Reaction coefficient of the acid


Mb = Molarity of the basic solution


Vb = Volume of base used in titration converted to Liters


b = Reaction coefficient of the base


To determine the reaction coefficients of the acid and base, you must first balance the reaction equation. The reaction co?


efficients are just the number in front of the acid or the base in the balanced equation. In this experiment, the tart candies




you will analyze are SweeTarts? which contain malic acid and Smarties which contain citric acid. The reactions are shown




After the reaction coefficients are determined for a titration, you then calculate how many moles of acid there are in each


gram of candy. An example is on the next page. SweeTarts?: Malic Acid


(acid ?) (base ?) HO2CCH2CH(OH)CO2H + Na2CO3 (salt?) ? Na+O2- CCH2CH(OH)CO2- Na+ + CO2 + H2O Notice that for the SweeTarts, one molecule of Na 2CO3 is required for every one molecule of malic acid. This


is because malic acid has 2 acid groups (?CO2H). For this reaction shown above, a is 1 and b is 1. Smarties?: Citric Acid


(acid ?) (base ?) (salt?) 2 HOC(CO2H)(CH2CO2H)2 + 3 Na2CO3 ? HOC(CO2- Na+)(CH2CO2- Na+)2 + 3 CO2 + 3 H2O


For Smarties, 3 Na?CO? molecules are required for every two citric acid molecules. This is because citric acid has


3 acid groups (?CO2H). Here, a is 2 and b is 3. 250 Lab 24: Titration


Example 1: Calculating the Moles of Acid in SweeTarts?


If 0.455 g of SweeTarts requires 2.88 mL of 0.25 M Na 2CO3 to reach the endpoint, how many moles of acid is there in each


gram of the candy?


Answer: Since 1 molecule of malic acid requires 1 molecule of Na2CO3 , a = 1 and b = 1.


Next, 2.88 mL of Na2CO3 must be converted to liters of Na2CO3 . 1L


1000 mL Vb = 2.88 mL x = 0.00288 L Mb is given to be 0.250 mol/L Na2CO3 . Solving for moles acid, we get: Molesacid = a x Mb x Vb


b Molesacid/g candy = = (1) (0.250 mol/L) (0.00288 L)


1 0.00115 mol


0.455 g = 0.00115 mol = 0.00253 mol acid/g candy Less concentrated solutions are often prepared by diluting a more concentrated solution. Dilutions of molar concentra?


tions are made by using the equation: MV


11 = MV22




M1 = Molarity of the starting, more concentrated solution


V1 = Volume needed of the starting more concentrated solution


M2 = Molarity of the final less concentrated solution


V2 = Final volume wanted of the final less concentrated solution 251 Lab 24: Titration


In this experiment you will start with 0.500 M Na2CO3 and you will need to make 40.0 ml of 0.250 M Na2CO3. This equation


can be used to find out how much of the 0.500 M Na 2CO3 is needed. M 1 would be 0.500 M, V 1 is what needs to be calcu?


lated, M2 is 0.250 M, and V2 is 40.0 mL. The equation then becomes: MV


11 = MV V1 = 22 ? V1 = MV




M1 (0.250 M NaCO)


23 (40 mL)


0.500 M NaCO


23 = 20.0 mL One way to make this solution is to first carefully measure out 20.0 mL of 0.50 M Na 2CO3 into a 100.0 mL graduated cylin?


der. The volume is brought up to 40.0 mL using distilled water and the solution is mixed well. Notice that the volume is


always brought up to the total volume. This is because if you put two different liquids together, the total amount of liquid


you will end up with is not always the sum of the two volumes you started with. The molecules may move closer or farther




Graduated cylinders are often accurate enough for many dilutions. However, when very accurate measurements are


needed, chemists will use more accurate equipment such as volumetric flasks and volumetric pipettes. 252 Lab 24: Titration


Pre?lab Questions


1. What is the difference between equivalence points and end points? 2. What would happen if you forgot to put the indicator in? 3. If 2.078 g of Smarties? requires 2.11 mL of 0.250 M Na 2CO3 to reach the endpoint, how many moles of acid is


there in each gram of the candy? 253 Lab 24: Titration


Experiment: Titration of Sour Candy


In this experiment, you will dissolve SweeTarts? and Smarties? in water and titrate the solutions with 0.25 M Na 2CO3. The


end point will be determined with grape juice as the indicator. It changes color at approximately pH 8. You will then deter?


mine which candy requires more Na 2CO3 per gram of candy to reach the endpoint. Finally, you will calculate the moles of


acid per gram for each type of candy. Materials


Safety Equipment: Safety goggles, gloves


0.5 M Na2CO3 2 Erlenmeyer flasks Smarties? candies (1 pack) Scale


SweeTarts? candies (8 candies)


Stirring rod


Grape juice Mortar and pestle


Syringe Funnel


Stopcock Dropper (pipette)


2 250 mL beakers Distilled water (heated, 50?C)*


*You must provide Procedure


Part 1: Titration of Grape Juice Indicator 254 o 1. Begin heating about 300 mL of distilled water to around 50 C. 2. While the water is heating, prepare the titrant: 40.0 mL of 0.250 M Na 2CO3. Do this by first carefully measur?


ing out 20.0 mL of 0.500 M Na 2CO3 into a 100 mL graduated cylinder. Use distilled water to bring the total


volume up to 40.0 mL. Stir the solution to mix well. 3. Pour the solution into a small beaker and record 0.250 M as the concentration of Na2CO3, Mb, in Table 1. 4. Place a waste beaker below the syringe. Carefully rinse 0.5 mL of the 0.250 M Na


into a waste beaker. Rinse the syringe twice. 5. Remove the syringe piston and place the stopcock on the end. Set the stopcock to close (no liquid drains


out). Fill the syringe slightly over the 5.00 mL mark. 6. Open the stopcock and drain the syringe into a waste beaker until the bottom of the meniscus or curve


touches the 5.00 mL mark. Close the stopcock. HINT: Make sure there are no air bubbles trapped in the sy?


ringe or the stopcock. If there are, drain the syringe into the waste beaker until the bubbles are washed out,


then refill the syringe and repeat Step 6. 7. Record 5.00 mL as the initial syringe volume in Table 1. 8. Add 50 mL of distilled water and 5.00 mL of grape juice into an Erlenmeyer flask. Place the Erlenmeyer flask


directly under the syringe/stopcock. 2CO3 through the syringe Lab 24: Titration


9. Hold the syringe over the flask, and open the stopcock to begin to add 0.250 M Na 2CO3 solution from the


syringe drop by drop. 10. The moment that the solution starts to turn green, close the stopcock and swirl the flask. Set the syringe in


an empty beaker if needed, being careful not to lose any of the titrant.


11. Continue the titration by adding one drop at a time, then swirling the flask. When it looks like the color


change remains after swirling, stop the titration.


HINT: You want to add just barely enough of the 0.250 M Na 2CO3 for the color change to stay. This


can be hard to see. When you think you are there, look at the syringe and see exactly how much


you have added (to the 0.00 mL decimal place). Remember to take the syringe reading where the


bottom of the meniscus is seen. Add 1 more drop while looking into the flask where it falls. Be


sure you have your goggles on! If there is no color change where the drop falls, you are finished


and record the reading you took before adding the last drop. If there is a color change, swirl the


flask to mix and then repeat adding a drop at a time and swirling the flask until there is no color




12. Record the final syringe volume in Table 1 under Grape Juice Trial 1. Record your measurement to the 0.00


mL decimal place.


13. Calculate the volume of Na2CO3 required to titrate the grape juice, and record this value in Table 1. This is


the difference between the initial and final syringe volumes. Maintain a precision to the 0.00 mL decimal




14. Fill the syringe to 5.00 mL and repeat the procedure. Record this data under Grape Juice Trial 2.


15. Average the results of the total volume of Na2CO3 required for the titration, and record this value in Table 1. Part 2: Titration of Candy


1. Crush 8 SweeTarts candies using the mortar and pestle. Weigh between 2.5 and 3.0 g of crushed candy and


place into an Erlenmeyer flask. Record the exact mass in Table 2. HINT: Candies that are of a lighter color


work better. 2. Add about 50 mL of hot distilled water to the flask with the candies. Gently crush and stir the candy with a


stirring rod until the candy is completely dissolved. Allow the solution to cool. 3. Use your 10 mL graduated cylinder to add 5.00 mL of grape juice into the Erlenmeyer flask. 4. Titrate using the 0.250 M Na2CO3 in the same way as in Part 1, except look for a definite color change. HINT:


The color may vary depending on the original color of the solution. 5. Once a definite color change has been achieved, record the final amount of 0.250 M Na 2CO3 (to the 0.00 mL


place) in Table 2 under Trial 1 for the SweeTarts?. 6. Refill the syringe to exactly 5.00 mL and repeat the procedure for the SweeTarts?. Record the data in Table


2 under Trial 2 for the SweeTarts?. 7. Repeat this procedure for the two Smarties? trials. Using the mortar and pestle, crush approximately 15




Smarties , or close to 1 pack. Weigh between 2.5 and 3.0 g of powder into a flask, and titrate as before. 8. To clean up, pour solutions down the drain. 9. Calculate the volume of Na 2CO3 required for each of the trials in Part 2. This is the difference between the


initial and final syringe volumes. 255 Lab 24: Titration




Table 1: Titration of grape juice indicator Measurement Grape Juice Trial 1 Grape Juice Trial 2 Molarity of Na2CO3


Initial syringe volume (mL)


Final syringe volume (mL)


Volume Na2CO3


required (mL)


Average volume Na2CO3


required (mL)


Table 2: Titration of candy Measurement Mass of candy (g)


Concentration of


Na2CO3, Mb


(on the bottle)


Initial syringe


volume (mL)


Final syringe


volume (mL)


Volume Na2CO3 solu?


tion required, Vb




256 SweeTarts?


Trial 1 SweeTarts?


Trial 2 Smarties?


Trial 1 Smarties?


Trial 2 Lab 24: Titration




1. Determine the volume of Na2CO3 used to titrate only the candy. HINT: Take the Volume of Na2CO3 used in Part


2 (candy and juice mixture) and subtract the volume required to titrate the grape juice alone (Part 1 average). ? SweeTarts Trial 1: ? SweeTarts Trial 2: ? Smarties Trial 1: ? Smarties Trial 2: 2. Determine the amount of Na 2CO3 used per gram of candy (mL Na2CO3/g). HINT: Divide the volumes obtained


above by the mass of each candy sample. ? SweeTarts Trial 1: ? SweeTarts Trial 2: ? Smarties Trial 1: ? Smarties Trial 2: 257 Lab 24: Titration


3. Determine the average amount of base used per gram of candy for each set of trials (mL Na2CO3/g). ? Sweet Tarts Average: ? Smarties Average: 4. Determine the moles acid per gram of candy. HINT: This is found by dividing the moles of acid found for each


type of candy by the mass of the candy initially weighed out and recorded in the data table. Complete in the


calculation in a stepwise process.


Moles of acid SweeTarts ? Trial 1: a. Write the balanced reaction equation. (See prelab discussion on page 250 for equation). b. Determine the mol to mol ratio of the acid to base (What are the values a and b?). 258 Lab 24: Titration


c. Apply the equation using your data in Table 1. (HINT: molesacid = a x Mb x Vb / b . Be sure to


convert mL to L.) d. Divide the number of moles of acid by the mass in grams of the candy used. Moles of acid in SweeTarts ? Trial 2: Repeat Steps a through d for Trial 2. Find the average of the two trials: Average Moles acid = 259 Lab 24: Titration


Moles of acid in Smarties ? Trial 1: Repeat Steps a through c for Smarties Trial 1. Moles of acid in Smarties ? Trial 2: Repeat Steps a through c for Smarties Trial 2. Find the average of the two trials: 260 Average Moles acid = Lab 24: Titration


Post?lab Questions


1. Which candy required more base per gram of candy? Is this what you expected? Explain your answer. 2. Which candy contained more moles of acid per gram of candy? Is this what you expected? Explain your an?


swer. 3. How would your Na 2CO3/g of candy reported change if there was a large air bubble in the stopcock tip when


you started your titration? 261


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