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[answered] Lab 5: Animal Biology Laboratory Exercise Pill bugs are ter

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Lab 5: Animal Biology Laboratory Exercise

Pill bugs are terrestrial (land dwelling) crustaceans with seven pairs of legs. Thought to be

descendants of aquatic crustaceans, like shrimp and lobsters, these animals breathe with

gills. Ethology is the study of animal behavior. Many behaviors involve movements of the

animal in its environment. Most such behaviors are innate or inherited, not learned.

For this laboratory exercise you will first determine whether the pill bugs prefer an

environment that is light over dark, or wet over dry. Then you will design an experiment of

your choosing.

Procedure

1. Place a piece of filter paper on both sides of the choice chamber.

2. Use the sorting brush to move 5 pill bugs from the pill bug container into each side of

the chamber and replace the chamber lids.

3. Cover one side of the choice chamber with tinfoil to exclude light. Count the number of

pill bugs on each side of the chamber every thirty seconds for 6 minutes. Take a dated

photograph of your results at 3 minutes and record your data in a Table like the one below.

You will not be submitting these tables, so it is okay to make these by hand. Table 1: Pill Bug Response to Light

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light 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 7 7 #

dark 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 4. Saturate the filter paper on one side of the chamber with water. Pour off excess water so

it does not moisten the filter paper in the other chamber. Count the number of pill bugs on

each side of the chamber every 30 seconds for 6 minutes. Take a dated photograph your

results at 3 minutes and record your data in Table like the one below. Table 2: Pill Bug Response to Moisture

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# wet 5 5 4 5 6 7 7 7 9 9 9 8 8 # dry 5 5 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 5. Design a pill bug experiment of interest to you. For example, you could test different

temperatures, sound exposures and the like. It is okay to be creative! There are two more

filter paper discs if you need them. Take a dated photograph of your results and record

your data in a Table like the one below. Table 3:

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5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 7 8 9 5 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 Statistical Analysis of your results. Remember that scientists cannot say whether there was a difference between a control and

an experimental group without the use of statistics. Therefore, use of the word significant

is limited to situations where statistical analysis has been performed.

Let?s consider a hypothetical experiment on cheese choice in pill bugs where one chamber

contains provolone cheese, and the other contains cheddar cheese. Let?s also assume that

the evolutionary history of pill bugs is unlikely to have included selection for a cheese

choice preference. Therefore, your hypothesis is that there would be no difference in

cheese choice by the pill bugs. Your hypothesis should always be that there will be no

difference in the number of pill bugs in each side of the choice chamber.

If you tested this hypothesis and found 5 pill bugs on each side of the chamber you would

say that your hypothesis was supported. What if you ended up with 6 pill bugs on one side of the chamber and 4 on the other? Must

you reject your hypothesis? What if you ended up with 8 pill bugs in the one chamber and 2

in the other? Where do you draw the line? In other words, how do we know whether a

difference is real and contradicts our hypothesis, or is or is small enough to be due to

chance and supports our hypothesis?

To determine whether any difference in observed and expected results is due to chance

alone, a statistical test called chi square-analysis can be performed.

The formula for calculating a chi-square value is : The sum of all: (observed ? expected)2

expected To perform this test follow steps 1-3 for each of your three experiments. A sample

problem using 6 and 4 is shown in red.

1. Determine observed and expected results.

(a) List the actual numbers of pill bugs observed on the provolone and cheddar sides of the

chamber. Assume that you have 6 bugs on the provolone site and 4 on the cheddar side of

the chamber.

Observed: 6 provolone and 4 cheddar

(b) Assuming that pill bugs do not have a preference for cheese type, list

the expected number of pill bugs on each side of the chamber at the end of the experiment.

Expected: 5 provolone and 5 cheddar.

2. Calculate a chi-square value for provolone and cheddar separately and then add them

together.

Calculated chi square = (6-5) 2/5 + (4-5) 2/5 = 1/5 +1/5 = 2/5 = 0.4.

Once you have a calculated chi-square value, you can determine whether to accept the

reject your hypothesis. This requires that we recall the term p-value, or the probability that

the deviation of the observed results from the expected results is due to chance alone, and

not some other variable. In biological research, the standard typically uses is a p value of

0.05.

3. Next compare the calculated chi-square value to the critical chi-square value. The

critical chi-square value is a constant, obtained from a standard table of chi-square

distribution values. At p = 0.05 the critical chi square value for this experiment is 3.814. When the calculated chi square is < the critical chi square value, we say that the

hypothesis is supported. When the calculated value is larger than the critical value, we

must reject the hypothesis.

A: Because our calculated chi square value (0.4) is less than the critical chi square

value (3.814), we say that our hypothesis, that pill bugs would show no difference

in cheese preference is supported. Lab Write-up - Submit your answers directly in Moodle as

online text, not as a word document or PDF.

1. Submit one graph showing data from both conditions of each of

the three experiments at the 6 minute time point. To prepare a

graph using Microsoft Word, click on the Insert tab, then on chart.

Select the clustered column graph icon, then click on the "select

data" icon and input the data from your table. Change "Series 1

and 2" to "Left Side" and "Right Side" and delete any remaining

series. Change "Categories to Wet/Dry, Dark/Light and your

experimental conditions. You can select a "quick layout" that

allows you label both axes and all three experimental conditions, as

well as an appropriate descriptive title. Remember to place the

dependent and independent variables on the correct axes. It would

probably benefit you to show your graph to someone unfamiliar

with the experiment and see if they can interpret your graph. We

are happy to help you with this as well. Take a screen shot of your

graph to submit.

2. Submit a one or two paragraph summary of discussion pill bug

behavior in response to different environmental conditions. Be sure

to comment on statistical significance.

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