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[answered] Lab 7: Optocoupler Objectives 1. To use an ohmmeter to dete


I need this lab done, please do it to the required way, which is doing it like a lab report. Thank you.


Lab 7: Optocoupler

 

Objectives

 

1.

 

2.

 

3.

 

4. To use an ohmmeter to determine the condition of the optoisolator.

 

To observe the operation of an optocoupler.

 

To determine the maximum frequency response of the optocoupler.

 

To use optocoupler as an isolated current transducer Introduction

 

An optoisolator is a hybrid integrated circuit that contains an LED on one side and a

 

photodetector on the other. The entire IC is hermetically sealed and light-tight. It is called

 

an optoisolator because it is used to electrically isolate a low-voltage circuit from a highvoltage circuit or one low-voltage circuit from another. A low-voltage control circuit is

 

used to energize the LED. Light from the LED is then optically coupled to the detector,

 

which is used to control a secondary circuit. For this reason, optoisolators are also called

 

optocouplers or optical coupling devices. Optocouplers isolate sensitive circuits, such as

 

computer chips, from the hazards associated with controlling high-voltage and high

 

power circuits. They offer the advantages of separating high-voltage circuits from low

 

voltage circuits, blocking power circuit voltage spikes from returning to the control

 

circuit, and preventing ground-loop problems in data and control systems. They are

 

capable of safely isolating 5V computer circuits from hundreds of volts in the output

 

circuit. Optoisolators are also relatively inexpensive, take up little space, and greatly

 

simplify control circuitry.

 

In this lab exercise, the operation of the optoisolator using a transistor as the detector will

 

be observed.

 

Procedure

 

When light from the LED is off, the phototransistor will not be on, causing the resistance

 

between the emitter and collector to be extremely high. Figure 6-1

 

Step 1

 

Using Figure 6-2 as a reference, place an ohmmeter between the emitter and collector

 

with the LED off. The negative lead should be on the emitter, the positive lead on the

 

collector.

 

Rce (LED off ) = ?............

 

When the light from the LED is on, the phototransistor will be on and create a low

 

resistance between the emitter and collector.

 

Step 2

 

Use a DC voltage source and a resistor to forward bias the LED of the optocoupler as

 

shown in figure 6-2. Change the DC voltage source and measure the resistance of the

 

collector-emitter of the output transistor and fill in the following.

 

Rce(VDC=0.5V)=..............

 

Rce(VDC=5V)=.............. Rce(VDC=2V)=............... Figure 6-2

 

Step 3

 

Draw the circuit in Figure 6-3 in Multisim. Set the function generator for a 5V peak

 

1000-Hz square wave. This will provide a 5V forward-biased signal for the LED of the

 

optoisolator. Step 4

 

Connect channel 1 of the oscilloscope to the output of the function generator, and channel

 

2 of the oscilloscope to the output of the optoisolator. Turn on and adjust the power

 

supply for 15V. Figure 6-3 Adjust the oscilloscope to display the input and output signals of the optoisolator. In the

 

space provided below, draw the two signals displayed on the oscilloscope. On the

 

drawing, indicate the on or off condition of both the LED and the phototransistor of the

 

optoisolator. LED

 

On/Off

 

Condition Optoisolator

 

(Transistor)

 

Output Step 5

 

Increase the frequency of the function generator to up to 10kHz. Compare the input

 

signal to the output signal. Does the phototransistor of the optoisolator react faster to the

 

on-to-off or off -to-on transition of the LED?

 

A. on-to-off

 

B. off -to-on Because there is a delayed reaction of the optoisolator, it has a maximum frequency

 

rating when a square wave signal is applied to its input. Beyond the maximum frequency,

 

the output signal cannot reach a good on or off level before the input signal is switched.

 

Assume the input signal, which is a square wave, is applied. An acceptable output signal

 

should reach at least 75 percent of its maximum signal.

 

Step 6

 

Increase the frequency of the square wave applied to the optoisolator until the output

 

becomes unacceptable. Record this value.

 

Maximum operation frequency: ?............... Hz The ratio of the forward current flow in the LED and the collector current of the

 

phototransistor is called the current transfer ratio (CTR). It is usually expressed as a

 

percentage and can be calculated by using the formula:

 

CTR= (Ic/If ) x 100

 

where If is the forward current through the diode and Ic is the collector current of the

 

phototransistor.

 

Step 7

 

Using the circuit in Figure 6-4, turn on power and record:

 

Ic=

 

If=

 

Calculate the current transfer ratio for the circuit. CTR Figure 6-4 Step 8

 

Construct the circuit in Figure 6-4. Connect a voltmeter across the output and ground.

 

Turn power on to the circuit. Figure 6-4

 

Press and release the push button. Note that the output of the optoisolator circuit is 15V

 

when the push button is open and 0V when the push button is closed. (A closed push

 

button will turn on the LED, which in turn turns on the phototransistor. The voltage

 

across the phototransistor drops to 0V.)

 

Design Problem

 

How can the circuit be modified so that the output of the optoisolator circuit will be 0V

 

when the push button is open and 15V when the push button is closed? Use the same

 

components. Step 9

 

Using optocoupler as an isolated current transducer to measure current in high voltage

 

AC circuits and interface it to a low voltage electronic circuit is shown in figure 6-5. In

 

this circuit the high voltage AC circuit is optically isolated from the low voltage

 

electronic measurement circuit. Draw the circuit shown in figure 6-5 in Multisim and

 

simulate it. Make lamps in parallel and connect to the AC source one by one and measure

 

the output voltage of the optocoupler using a voltmeter. Fill out the following table: Table 6-1

 

AC circuit current Optotransistor output

 

voltage No lamp connected

 

One lamp connected

 

Two lamps connected

 

Three lamps connected

 

What is the purpose of diode D1 in the circuit? Figure 6-5 Step 10

 

Observe the input and output voltage of the optocoupler using oscilloscope and draw

 

below. Voltage across R3: Voltage across collector-emitter of optotransistor: Experiment Questions

 

1. T/F: An optocoupler is also referred to as an optoisolator.

 

2. When the LED in the optocoupler is turned on, the optodetector is turned.

 

A. on

 

B. off

 

3. When the optodetector is turned on, its resistance is.

 

A. low

 

B. high

 

4. If the current that turns on the LED of an optoisolator is 12 mA, and causes 3 mA to

 

flow through the photodetector, the CTR is ?........

 

5. An acceptable square wave at the output of an optocoupler is ?.............. of its

 

maximum signal.

 

A. 25%

 

B. 50%

 

C. 75%

 

D. 100%

 


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