## [answered] Lab Activities Meteorologists can assess the stability of t

Lab Activities

Meteorologists can assess the stability of the lower troposphere (and thus the potential for thunderstorm development) by calculating simple indices that are based on the temperature and dew-point temperature at various levels in the atmosphere. One such stability index is the Total Totals Index (TTI), which is computed as follows:

Total Totals Index = T850 + Td850 ? (2 ? T500)

where:

• T850 is the 850-mb air temperature,
• Td850 is the 850-mb dew point temperature, and
• T500 is the 500-mb air temperature

(All temperatures are in ?C.)

Note how warm, moist air at low levels increases the value of the index (low levels are represented by the 850-mb level), and cold air at middle levels of the troposphere (middle levels are represented by the 500-mb level) also increase the value of the index. Thus, the TTI is large when warm, moist, low-level air lies beneath cold air at middle levels.

East of the Rocky Mountains, the value of the TTI can be interpreted using table 11.1 below:

Table 11.1

 TTI Thunderstorm Outlook < 44 Thunderstorms unlikely 44?45 Isolated or few thunderstorms 46?47 Scattered thunderstorms 48?49 Scattered thunderstorms, isolated severe thunderstorm 50?51 Scattered thunderstorms, few severe thunderstorms, isolated tornadoes 52?55 Scattered to numerous thunderstorms, few to scattered severe thunderstorms, few tornadoes 56 Numerous thunderstorms, scattered severe thunderstorms, scattered tornadoes

Source: Nese, J., & Grenci, L. (1998). A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology (2nd ed.).
Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing. (fig. 8.15, p. 242).

Choose a city near a low-pressure center, near a weather front, or one that is experiencing precipitation or under thick cloudiness. (For the purposes of this exercise, use table 11.1 to determine the thunderstorm outlook, whether you choose a city east or west of the Rocky Mountains).

Calculate the TTI for that city. Be sure to show your calculations.

Determine the thunderstorm outlook for your chosen city.

Include a copy of all weather products you used in your work. That includes any surface weather maps, upper-air weather maps, St?ve diagrams, or radar precipitation maps.

Hint: you should be able to collect all of your required data from the American Meteorological Society DataStreme Atmosphere Web site.

On the surface weather map, in this activity, indicate the location of Larko's Triangle.

You've been given the role of ?tornado chaser? for a very important tornado research project.

Where do you think is the best place and what is the best time to wait for these storms? Explain.

What important safety precautions must you keep in mind?

Lab Activities

Meteorologists can assess the stability of the lower troposphere (and thus the potential for

thunderstorm development) by calculating simple indices that are based on the temperature and

dew-point temperature at various levels in the atmosphere. One such stability index is the Total

Totals Index (TTI), which is computed as follows:

Total Totals Index = T850 + Td850 ? (2 ? T500)

where: T850 is the 850-mb air temperature, Td850 is the 850-mb dew point temperature, and T500 is the 500-mb air temperature

(All temperatures are in ?C.) Note how warm, moist air at low levels increases the value of the index (low levels are

represented by the 850-mb level), and cold air at middle levels of the troposphere (middle levels

are represented by the 500-mb level) also increase the value of the index. Thus, the TTI is large

when warm, moist, low-level air lies beneath cold air at middle levels.

East of the Rocky Mountains, the value of the TTI can be interpreted using table 11.1 below:

Table 11.1

TTI Thunderstorm Outlook &lt; 44 Thunderstorms unlikely 44?45 Isolated or few thunderstorms 46?47 Scattered thunderstorms 48?49 Scattered thunderstorms, isolated

severe thunderstorm 50?51 Scattered thunderstorms, few

severe thunderstorms, isolated

thunderstorms, few to scattered

severe thunderstorms, few

scattered severe thunderstorms,

scattered tornadoes Source: Nese, J., &amp; Grenci, L. (1998). A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology (2nd ed.).

Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing. (fig. 8.15, p. 242). 1. Choose a city near a low-pressure center, near a weather front, or one that is

experiencing precipitation or under thick cloudiness. (For the purposes of this exercise,

use table 11.1 to determine the thunderstorm outlook, whether you choose a city east or

west of the Rocky Mountains).

a. Calculate the TTI for that city. Be sure to show your calculations.

b. Determine the thunderstorm outlook for your chosen city.

c. Include a copy of all weather products you used in your work. That includes any

surface weather maps, upper-air weather maps, St?ve diagrams, or radar

precipitation maps. Hint: you should be able to collect all of your required data from the American

Meteorological Society DataStreme Atmosphere Web site.

2. On the surface weather map, in this activity, indicate the location of Larko's Triangle.

3. You've been given the role of ?tornado chaser? for a very important tornado research

project.

a. Where do you think is the best place and what is the best time to wait for these

storms? Explain.

b. What important safety precautions must you keep in mind?

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