Question Details

[answered] Looking at the history of Economic and well-known Economist

I am an English?learner don't write too?advanced the

question is: Why women?aren't majoring in economic?

I have an intro (barely) i attached it

Please use those references:

Looking at the history of Economic and well-known Economists, the field is widely


composed of men, they started and dominated this genre for decade. Often when speaking about


economists, you don?t automatically think of women. It was until the 20th century, when a


woman Joan Robinson was introduced and later on, more women began to embrace this field,


like Janet Yellen, Carmen Reinhart, Cecilia Conrad and many more. However, comparing the


ratio of women to men in the Economic world, it?s just too little. Yet, women should not be


blamed for not contributing much, since this sexist history of bias restriction based on their


gender that portrayed them as being physically weak, and lacking as much intelligence as men:


stopped them from achieving more. Against the judgement of society, women decided to pursue


higher degrees and took the education world by storm. Although they were thriving in postsecondary school, the percentage of women in economic studies and careers was short. This


evokes many questions of what obstacles women are encountering that are stopping them from


entering the field, or is it because women intentionally are not majoring in this field. There are so


many questions to ask to understand the underrepresentation.




EVIDENCE!!!! (((((((((((((((((((((((((According to the CSWEP yearly review, women


undergraduates in economics is very low at only 35%. With this underrepresentation of women


economists for undergraduates, those who hold tenured tenured full professorships at PhD-granting




The end of the pipeline shows further attrition? in 2015 womentenured full professorships at


PhD-granting institutions.


held only 12.2% of tenured full professorships at PhD-granting institutions.


we believe could help universities encourage and prepare more women and students of color to


pursue careers in economic research: 1. Undergraduate students in economics should be systematically


informed of the coursework needed in preparation for graduate school. Not every economics major


includes the rigorous math and advanced statistics courses that economics graduate programs require.


Because of the current disparate state of the field, women and students of color may not have peers and


mentors to inform them of the additional coursework they must take. Therefore, this information should


be formally disseminated by the department, and the students who take these advanced courses should be


academically supported. 2. Since women and students of color are underrepresented in undergraduate


computer science courses, economics departments should host introductory coding workshops to expose


them early on to different programming languages. Importantly, coding skills are often a prerequisite for


research assistantships. 3. On that note, economics departments should also encourage women and


students of color to engage in hands-on research. Working as a research assistant for an economist and


completing an independent senior thesis are some of the best ways to gain the experience that graduate


schools like to see, because they signal both interest and ability. 4. Economics departments can support


underrepresented students by developing formal student-faculty mentorship programs that engage all


faculty members (not just female faculty or faculty of color). Unfortunately, because the majority of


faculty are white and male, not all students may feel equally comfortable approaching faculty members


for research positions or guidance on their own. 5. For the same reasons (as well as for other reasons


beyond the scope of this article), economics departments should consider diversifying the composition of


their faculty. 6. Undergraduate economics departments should establish groups such as a Women in


Economics Association or Black Students in Economics. These groups can provide student mentors and


help build the networks often necessary to be successful in economics. Student groups can also


disseminate information on course requirements, research assistant positions and coding workshops


directly to women and students of color. We want to note that while we think these steps could have an


impact, targeting the undergraduate level alone will not solve the gender and racial gaps in economics.


Equity issues at the job market level, the co-authorship level and the tenure level are problematic as well. There are also numerous disparities in early childhood resources and education that prevent women and


people of color from entering economics or other quantitative fields. It is necessary to think about how


someone?s access to any educational or career path may be impacted uniquely by their race, gender,


sexuality, religion, class, ability and any intersection of these identities. Ultimately, while addressing these


issues of racial and gender equity and accessibility in economics is important in and of itself, reversing


underrepresentation is imperative to the quality of academic work and its implications for policy analysis


and implementation. The inclusion of women and people of color in economics has a bearing on what


issues are considered, prioritized and addressed. Since beneath all economic research and policy


prescriptions is a set of values and beliefs about the way the world is structured, bringing diverse voices


to the table is the only way to conduct research and policy with just and equitable impacts. Nicole


Dussault and Emily Eisner are former Research Analysts at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The


views expressed in this piece are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Federal Reserve


Bank of New York or of the Federal Reserve System.))))))))))))))))))))))) From a website do not copy and






MATH !?According to a study ran by the department of economics at Harvard that


explores the underrepresentation of women in economics at Adams State University ?...women


are not majoring in economics to the same degree as their male BA counterparts across a wide


variety of colleges and universities.? Early studies suggested that economics, being a mathintensive subject is the reason why some women stay away. Researchers Finegan, Niccols, and


Sitarenios, 1992; Hines et al , 2003 suggested that because women have less androgen levels


than men, it influences their level of understanding math. Androgens which ?can be called "male


hormones,"...Both men's and women's bodies produce androgens, just in differing amounts.? (Dr.


James Simon, 2015) They relate to cognitive abilities. In that case, an individual with high


androgens has to have equal understanding of math as male. Will this mean that women with


high androgens will match men math abilities? Based on this article conclusion, where women


with high androgens contradict this theory, it can be conclude that there is no linear relationship.


Therefore, high androgens level can be found on female but it still doesn?t help them to perform


as well(Ceci et al, 2003) If androgens was really the influence for men better math abilities why


can?t women perform as good in math (Valla & Ceci, 2011). The is no sex differences in


quantitative ability. Biological differences shouldn?t use to explain why women aren?t in math


intensive field. Although the lack of women in the economic is due to intensive math, ?US girl


has now reached parity with the average boy, even in high school, and even for measures


requiring complex problem solving.? The female economic major (FEM) at Adams State


University (ASU) differs from the men based on their grades. At ASU When FEM fails a class at


or get a grade lower than a B, they have tendency to drop the class whereas male continue no


matter what. ?Women do better than men in Ec200 (less mathematical version) but worse in


Ec300 (more mathematical). The mean grade for women in Ec201 is 3.33 but is 3.24 for men.?


Fear of failing, push women away from the economic field. Surprisingly, ?Math-ability does not have much to do with the initial decision to major in economics and with the eventual major.?


(Goldin, 2015).


?For every female economics major today there are almost 2.9 male majors nationwide, relative


to their numbers as BAs.(Goldin, 2015)? Women aren?t fruitful


According to Maria Zhu, the misunderstanding of the field drove women away or stopped them


from exploring it. Therefore as a result, there is a vast underrepresentation of women in the field which


further this unwelcoming or intimidating vibe to women who might be interested. Ceci et al further


explained the under representation by emphasizing that Economics, being a math intensive STEM


program, it lowers the chance of women pursuing the field as a career.


There is this journal written by various authors titled, ? Women in Academic Science: A


Changing Landscape? that analyzed the issues that lead to gender inequalities in the Science


field( Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, and Wendy M. Williams, 2014); where the


focus for this will be Economics, and try to understand the lack of women present. Secondly, an article


by Maria Boya Zhu titled ? An Undergraduate Major?s Perspective? mentioned that misconception of


Economics (Zhu, 2013) is leading to a lack of women being interested or not continuing with economics.


A third article by Goldin Claudia ?...explore why women are not majoring in economics to the same


degree as are their male BA counterparts across a wide variety of colleges and universities.? References: Bayer, A., & Rouse, C. E. (2016, Fall). Diversity in the Economics Profession: A New Attack on an Old


Problem [Scholarly project]. In Http:// Retrieved


December 8, 2016, from Ceci, S. J., Ginther, D. K., Kahn, S., & Williams, W. M. (2014, December 03). Women in Academic


Science: A Changing Landscape. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 15(3), 75-141.




Goldin, C. (2015, August 12). Gender and the Undergraduate Economics Major: Notes on the


Undergraduate Economics Major at a Highly Selective Liberal Arts College. Retrieved November 16,


2016, from


Penner, A. M. (2015). Gender inequality in science. Science, 347(6219), 234-235.




Zhu, M. B. (summer 2013). An Undergraduate Major's Perspective. In Committee on the Status of


Women in the Economic Profession (pp. 7-8). American Economic Association's Committee on the Status


of Women in the Economics Profession. Retrieved November 4, 2016, from


Dussault, Nicole, and Emily Eisner. "Mind the Gap Addressing Gender and Racial Disparities in


Economics." N.p., 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.


Solution details:

This question was answered on: Sep 18, 2020

PRICE: $15 (25.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $15

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free copy from our tutoring website (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .

About this Question






Sep 18, 2020





We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.


Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.


Order Now