I am an English?learner don't write too?advanced the
question is: Why women?aren't majoring in economic?
I have an intro (barely) i attached it
Please use those references:
Looking at the history of Economic and well-known Economists, the field is widely
composed of men, they started and dominated this genre for decade. Often when speaking about
economists, you don?t automatically think of women. It was until the 20th century, when a
woman Joan Robinson was introduced and later on, more women began to embrace this field,
like Janet Yellen, Carmen Reinhart, Cecilia Conrad and many more. However, comparing the
ratio of women to men in the Economic world, it?s just too little. Yet, women should not be
blamed for not contributing much, since this sexist history of bias restriction based on their
gender that portrayed them as being physically weak, and lacking as much intelligence as men:
stopped them from achieving more. Against the judgement of society, women decided to pursue
higher degrees and took the education world by storm. Although they were thriving in postsecondary school, the percentage of women in economic studies and careers was short. This
evokes many questions of what obstacles women are encountering that are stopping them from
entering the field, or is it because women intentionally are not majoring in this field. There are so
many questions to ask to understand the underrepresentation.
HOW ARE WOMEN DOING IN ECONOMICS? STATISTICS BACKGROUND
EVIDENCE!!!! (((((((((((((((((((((((((According to the CSWEP yearly review, women
undergraduates in economics is very low at only 35%. With this underrepresentation of women
economists for undergraduates, those who hold tenured tenured full professorships at PhD-granting
The end of the pipeline shows further attrition? in 2015 womentenured full professorships at
held only 12.2% of tenured full professorships at PhD-granting institutions.
we believe could help universities encourage and prepare more women and students of color to
pursue careers in economic research: 1. Undergraduate students in economics should be systematically
informed of the coursework needed in preparation for graduate school. Not every economics major
includes the rigorous math and advanced statistics courses that economics graduate programs require.
Because of the current disparate state of the field, women and students of color may not have peers and
mentors to inform them of the additional coursework they must take. Therefore, this information should
be formally disseminated by the department, and the students who take these advanced courses should be
academically supported. 2. Since women and students of color are underrepresented in undergraduate
computer science courses, economics departments should host introductory coding workshops to expose
them early on to different programming languages. Importantly, coding skills are often a prerequisite for
research assistantships. 3. On that note, economics departments should also encourage women and
students of color to engage in hands-on research. Working as a research assistant for an economist and
completing an independent senior thesis are some of the best ways to gain the experience that graduate
schools like to see, because they signal both interest and ability. 4. Economics departments can support
underrepresented students by developing formal student-faculty mentorship programs that engage all
faculty members (not just female faculty or faculty of color). Unfortunately, because the majority of
faculty are white and male, not all students may feel equally comfortable approaching faculty members
for research positions or guidance on their own. 5. For the same reasons (as well as for other reasons
beyond the scope of this article), economics departments should consider diversifying the composition of
their faculty. 6. Undergraduate economics departments should establish groups such as a Women in
Economics Association or Black Students in Economics. These groups can provide student mentors and
help build the networks often necessary to be successful in economics. Student groups can also
disseminate information on course requirements, research assistant positions and coding workshops
directly to women and students of color. We want to note that while we think these steps could have an
impact, targeting the undergraduate level alone will not solve the gender and racial gaps in economics.
Equity issues at the job market level, the co-authorship level and the tenure level are problematic as well. There are also numerous disparities in early childhood resources and education that prevent women and
people of color from entering economics or other quantitative fields. It is necessary to think about how
someone?s access to any educational or career path may be impacted uniquely by their race, gender,
sexuality, religion, class, ability and any intersection of these identities. Ultimately, while addressing these
issues of racial and gender equity and accessibility in economics is important in and of itself, reversing
underrepresentation is imperative to the quality of academic work and its implications for policy analysis
and implementation. The inclusion of women and people of color in economics has a bearing on what
issues are considered, prioritized and addressed. Since beneath all economic research and policy
prescriptions is a set of values and beliefs about the way the world is structured, bringing diverse voices
to the table is the only way to conduct research and policy with just and equitable impacts. Nicole
Dussault and Emily Eisner are former Research Analysts at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The
views expressed in this piece are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Federal Reserve
Bank of New York or of the Federal Reserve System.))))))))))))))))))))))) From a website do not copy and
paste HOW ARE WOMEN DOING IN ECONOMICS? STATISTICS BACKGROUND
MATH !?According to a study ran by the department of economics at Harvard that
explores the underrepresentation of women in economics at Adams State University ?...women
are not majoring in economics to the same degree as their male BA counterparts across a wide
variety of colleges and universities.? Early studies suggested that economics, being a mathintensive subject is the reason why some women stay away. Researchers Finegan, Niccols, and
Sitarenios, 1992; Hines et al , 2003 suggested that because women have less androgen levels
than men, it influences their level of understanding math. Androgens which ?can be called "male
hormones,"...Both men's and women's bodies produce androgens, just in differing amounts.? (Dr.
James Simon, 2015) They relate to cognitive abilities. In that case, an individual with high
androgens has to have equal understanding of math as male. Will this mean that women with
high androgens will match men math abilities? Based on this article conclusion, where women
with high androgens contradict this theory, it can be conclude that there is no linear relationship.
Therefore, high androgens level can be found on female but it still doesn?t help them to perform
as well(Ceci et al, 2003) If androgens was really the influence for men better math abilities why
can?t women perform as good in math (Valla & Ceci, 2011). The is no sex differences in
quantitative ability. Biological differences shouldn?t use to explain why women aren?t in math
intensive field. Although the lack of women in the economic is due to intensive math, ?US girl
has now reached parity with the average boy, even in high school, and even for measures
requiring complex problem solving.? The female economic major (FEM) at Adams State
University (ASU) differs from the men based on their grades. At ASU When FEM fails a class at
or get a grade lower than a B, they have tendency to drop the class whereas male continue no
matter what. ?Women do better than men in Ec200 (less mathematical version) but worse in
Ec300 (more mathematical). The mean grade for women in Ec201 is 3.33 but is 3.24 for men.?
Fear of failing, push women away from the economic field. Surprisingly, ?Math-ability does not have much to do with the initial decision to major in economics and with the eventual major.?
?For every female economics major today there are almost 2.9 male majors nationwide, relative
to their numbers as BAs.(Goldin, 2015)? Women aren?t fruitful
According to Maria Zhu, the misunderstanding of the field drove women away or stopped them
from exploring it. Therefore as a result, there is a vast underrepresentation of women in the field which
further this unwelcoming or intimidating vibe to women who might be interested. Ceci et al further
explained the under representation by emphasizing that Economics, being a math intensive STEM
program, it lowers the chance of women pursuing the field as a career.
There is this journal written by various authors titled, ? Women in Academic Science: A
Changing Landscape? that analyzed the issues that lead to gender inequalities in the Science
field( Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, and Wendy M. Williams, 2014); where the
focus for this will be Economics, and try to understand the lack of women present. Secondly, an article
by Maria Boya Zhu titled ? An Undergraduate Major?s Perspective? mentioned that misconception of
Economics (Zhu, 2013) is leading to a lack of women being interested or not continuing with economics.
A third article by Goldin Claudia ?...explore why women are not majoring in economics to the same
degree as are their male BA counterparts across a wide variety of colleges and universities.? References: Bayer, A., & Rouse, C. E. (2016, Fall). Diversity in the Economics Profession: A New Attack on an Old
Problem [Scholarly project]. In Http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.30.4.221. Retrieved
December 8, 2016, from http://dataspace.princeton.edu/jspui/handle/88435/dsp01bc386m66h Ceci, S. J., Ginther, D. K., Kahn, S., & Williams, W. M. (2014, December 03). Women in Academic
Science: A Changing Landscape. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 15(3), 75-141.
Goldin, C. (2015, August 12). Gender and the Undergraduate Economics Major: Notes on the
Undergraduate Economics Major at a Highly Selective Liberal Arts College. Retrieved November 16,
2016, from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/goldin/files/claudia_gender_paper.pdf?m=1429198526
Penner, A. M. (2015). Gender inequality in science. Science, 347(6219), 234-235.
Zhu, M. B. (summer 2013). An Undergraduate Major's Perspective. In Committee on the Status of
Women in the Economic Profession (pp. 7-8). American Economic Association's Committee on the Status
of Women in the Economics Profession. Retrieved November 4, 2016, from
Dussault, Nicole, and Emily Eisner. "Mind the Gap Addressing Gender and Racial Disparities in
Economics." https://www.aeaweb.org/content/file?id=2824. N.p., 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.
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