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[answered] Looking at the history of Economic and well-known Economist


I am an English?learner don't write too?advanced the

question is: Why women?aren't majoring in economic?

I have an intro (barely) i attached it

Please use those references:

References:
Looking at the history of Economic and well-known Economists, the field is widely

 

composed of men, they started and dominated this genre for decade. Often when speaking about

 

economists, you don?t automatically think of women. It was until the 20th century, when a

 

woman Joan Robinson was introduced and later on, more women began to embrace this field,

 

like Janet Yellen, Carmen Reinhart, Cecilia Conrad and many more. However, comparing the

 

ratio of women to men in the Economic world, it?s just too little. Yet, women should not be

 

blamed for not contributing much, since this sexist history of bias restriction based on their

 

gender that portrayed them as being physically weak, and lacking as much intelligence as men:

 

stopped them from achieving more. Against the judgement of society, women decided to pursue

 

higher degrees and took the education world by storm. Although they were thriving in postsecondary school, the percentage of women in economic studies and careers was short. This

 

evokes many questions of what obstacles women are encountering that are stopping them from

 

entering the field, or is it because women intentionally are not majoring in this field. There are so

 

many questions to ask to understand the underrepresentation.

 

HOW ARE WOMEN DOING IN ECONOMICS? STATISTICS BACKGROUND

 

EVIDENCE!!!! (((((((((((((((((((((((((According to the CSWEP yearly review, women

 

undergraduates in economics is very low at only 35%. With this underrepresentation of women

 

economists for undergraduates, those who hold tenured tenured full professorships at PhD-granting

 

institutions.

 

The end of the pipeline shows further attrition? in 2015 womentenured full professorships at

 

PhD-granting institutions.

 

held only 12.2% of tenured full professorships at PhD-granting institutions.

 

we believe could help universities encourage and prepare more women and students of color to

 

pursue careers in economic research: 1. Undergraduate students in economics should be systematically

 

informed of the coursework needed in preparation for graduate school. Not every economics major

 

includes the rigorous math and advanced statistics courses that economics graduate programs require.

 

Because of the current disparate state of the field, women and students of color may not have peers and

 

mentors to inform them of the additional coursework they must take. Therefore, this information should

 

be formally disseminated by the department, and the students who take these advanced courses should be

 

academically supported. 2. Since women and students of color are underrepresented in undergraduate

 

computer science courses, economics departments should host introductory coding workshops to expose

 

them early on to different programming languages. Importantly, coding skills are often a prerequisite for

 

research assistantships. 3. On that note, economics departments should also encourage women and

 

students of color to engage in hands-on research. Working as a research assistant for an economist and

 

completing an independent senior thesis are some of the best ways to gain the experience that graduate

 

schools like to see, because they signal both interest and ability. 4. Economics departments can support

 

underrepresented students by developing formal student-faculty mentorship programs that engage all

 

faculty members (not just female faculty or faculty of color). Unfortunately, because the majority of

 

faculty are white and male, not all students may feel equally comfortable approaching faculty members

 

for research positions or guidance on their own. 5. For the same reasons (as well as for other reasons

 

beyond the scope of this article), economics departments should consider diversifying the composition of

 

their faculty. 6. Undergraduate economics departments should establish groups such as a Women in

 

Economics Association or Black Students in Economics. These groups can provide student mentors and

 

help build the networks often necessary to be successful in economics. Student groups can also

 

disseminate information on course requirements, research assistant positions and coding workshops

 

directly to women and students of color. We want to note that while we think these steps could have an

 

impact, targeting the undergraduate level alone will not solve the gender and racial gaps in economics.

 

Equity issues at the job market level, the co-authorship level and the tenure level are problematic as well. There are also numerous disparities in early childhood resources and education that prevent women and

 

people of color from entering economics or other quantitative fields. It is necessary to think about how

 

someone?s access to any educational or career path may be impacted uniquely by their race, gender,

 

sexuality, religion, class, ability and any intersection of these identities. Ultimately, while addressing these

 

issues of racial and gender equity and accessibility in economics is important in and of itself, reversing

 

underrepresentation is imperative to the quality of academic work and its implications for policy analysis

 

and implementation. The inclusion of women and people of color in economics has a bearing on what

 

issues are considered, prioritized and addressed. Since beneath all economic research and policy

 

prescriptions is a set of values and beliefs about the way the world is structured, bringing diverse voices

 

to the table is the only way to conduct research and policy with just and equitable impacts. Nicole

 

Dussault and Emily Eisner are former Research Analysts at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The

 

views expressed in this piece are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Federal Reserve

 

Bank of New York or of the Federal Reserve System.))))))))))))))))))))))) From a website do not copy and

 

paste HOW ARE WOMEN DOING IN ECONOMICS? STATISTICS BACKGROUND

 

EVIDENCE!!!!

 

MATH !?According to a study ran by the department of economics at Harvard that

 

explores the underrepresentation of women in economics at Adams State University ?...women

 

are not majoring in economics to the same degree as their male BA counterparts across a wide

 

variety of colleges and universities.? Early studies suggested that economics, being a mathintensive subject is the reason why some women stay away. Researchers Finegan, Niccols, and

 

Sitarenios, 1992; Hines et al , 2003 suggested that because women have less androgen levels

 

than men, it influences their level of understanding math. Androgens which ?can be called "male

 

hormones,"...Both men's and women's bodies produce androgens, just in differing amounts.? (Dr.

 

James Simon, 2015) They relate to cognitive abilities. In that case, an individual with high

 

androgens has to have equal understanding of math as male. Will this mean that women with

 

high androgens will match men math abilities? Based on this article conclusion, where women

 

with high androgens contradict this theory, it can be conclude that there is no linear relationship.

 

Therefore, high androgens level can be found on female but it still doesn?t help them to perform

 

as well(Ceci et al, 2003) If androgens was really the influence for men better math abilities why

 

can?t women perform as good in math (Valla & Ceci, 2011). The is no sex differences in

 

quantitative ability. Biological differences shouldn?t use to explain why women aren?t in math

 

intensive field. Although the lack of women in the economic is due to intensive math, ?US girl

 

has now reached parity with the average boy, even in high school, and even for measures

 

requiring complex problem solving.? The female economic major (FEM) at Adams State

 

University (ASU) differs from the men based on their grades. At ASU When FEM fails a class at

 

or get a grade lower than a B, they have tendency to drop the class whereas male continue no

 

matter what. ?Women do better than men in Ec200 (less mathematical version) but worse in

 

Ec300 (more mathematical). The mean grade for women in Ec201 is 3.33 but is 3.24 for men.?

 

Fear of failing, push women away from the economic field. Surprisingly, ?Math-ability does not have much to do with the initial decision to major in economics and with the eventual major.?

 

(Goldin, 2015).

 

?For every female economics major today there are almost 2.9 male majors nationwide, relative

 

to their numbers as BAs.(Goldin, 2015)? Women aren?t fruitful

 

According to Maria Zhu, the misunderstanding of the field drove women away or stopped them

 

from exploring it. Therefore as a result, there is a vast underrepresentation of women in the field which

 

further this unwelcoming or intimidating vibe to women who might be interested. Ceci et al further

 

explained the under representation by emphasizing that Economics, being a math intensive STEM

 

program, it lowers the chance of women pursuing the field as a career.

 

There is this journal written by various authors titled, ? Women in Academic Science: A

 

Changing Landscape? that analyzed the issues that lead to gender inequalities in the Science

 

field( Stephen J. Ceci, Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, and Wendy M. Williams, 2014); where the

 

focus for this will be Economics, and try to understand the lack of women present. Secondly, an article

 

by Maria Boya Zhu titled ? An Undergraduate Major?s Perspective? mentioned that misconception of

 

Economics (Zhu, 2013) is leading to a lack of women being interested or not continuing with economics.

 

A third article by Goldin Claudia ?...explore why women are not majoring in economics to the same

 

degree as are their male BA counterparts across a wide variety of colleges and universities.? References: Bayer, A., & Rouse, C. E. (2016, Fall). Diversity in the Economics Profession: A New Attack on an Old

 

Problem [Scholarly project]. In Http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.30.4.221. Retrieved

 

December 8, 2016, from http://dataspace.princeton.edu/jspui/handle/88435/dsp01bc386m66h Ceci, S. J., Ginther, D. K., Kahn, S., & Williams, W. M. (2014, December 03). Women in Academic

 

Science: A Changing Landscape. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 15(3), 75-141.

 

doi:10.1177/1529100614541236 http://www.psychologicalscience.org/publications/women-in-academicscience.html#.WCyWStUrKUk

 

Goldin, C. (2015, August 12). Gender and the Undergraduate Economics Major: Notes on the

 

Undergraduate Economics Major at a Highly Selective Liberal Arts College. Retrieved November 16,

 

2016, from http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/goldin/files/claudia_gender_paper.pdf?m=1429198526

 

Penner, A. M. (2015). Gender inequality in science. Science, 347(6219), 234-235.

 

doi:10.1126/science.aaa3781 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6219/234.summary

 

Zhu, M. B. (summer 2013). An Undergraduate Major's Perspective. In Committee on the Status of

 

Women in the Economic Profession (pp. 7-8). American Economic Association's Committee on the Status

 

of Women in the Economics Profession. Retrieved November 4, 2016, from

 

http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/goldin/files/cswep_nsltr_sprsum_2013.pdf?m=1395432339

 

Dussault, Nicole, and Emily Eisner. "Mind the Gap Addressing Gender and Racial Disparities in

 

Economics." https://www.aeaweb.org/content/file?id=2824. N.p., 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016.

 


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