#### Question Details

[answered] MIDTERM (15 short answer questions) Name __________________

Fill out with correct answers. This is an undergraduate Critical Thinking Course. 15 questions.

1. If x is causally sufficient for y, then it is necessary that y is

___________________________________________________ for x.

2. Construct an evil twin for the following valid argument form:

P1:?? If Not-Not-F then (Z or H)

?P2: ?Not-Not-F

?C:?? Z or H

3. Damning evidence must be known by the arguer to whose argument it applies.??

? (i.) TRUE?????? ????????(ii.) FALSE??????? ????(iii.) Spurious!????? (iv) unknowable

4. 2 + 2 = 5 is?? _____________________________??? for getting an F in this course.

5. Given a proof by contradiction (PBC) whose support is .4 and whose original premises are false, the negation of the conclusion? (i.) must be true??? (ii.) cannot be true???? (iii.) is perverse??? (iv.) can't be evaluated for truth.

6. If x is a node in a hierarchically organized tree structure, then it is ?________________________________ ???for all nodes in the tree structure lower than it.

7. P1: 8% of all Rutgers/Newark students will get drunk this weekend. P2: Booze-Head is a Rutgers/Newark student. What can be inductively concluded about Booze-Head from these premises?

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

8. (i.) Every???? (ii.) Not every????????? (iii.) No?????????????? substitution instance of the following argument form is valid:??????????

__P1__: If not-not-q then (not-p or not-q)??

__P2__: Not-(Not-p or not-q)????????????

__C__:? Not-not-q

9. When you infer "x is causally sufficient for y" from "x is sufficient for y" without additional information, you have committed? the?

_____________________________________________________________________.

10. (i.) Every???? (ii.) Not every???????? (iii.) No?????????????? substitution instance of the following argument form is?__invalid__:??????????

__P1__: If not-p then not-q??????????????????

__P2__: not-q????????????????????

?__C__: ?not-p

11. Attending logic class and listening to Mozart?s music is

________________________________________________??? for squaring the circle.

12. The reason why a PBC with support 0 is worthless is that?

____________________________________ in which the augmented premise set is true,

but you do not know which one it is.

13. When we conjecture x causes y and perform an experiment to prove this is so, how do we rule out the case that y causes x AND x and y occur at the same time?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

14. If you encounter a substitution instance of Modus Tollens in which the second premise is clearly true, is it rational for you to believe the conclusion?

(i)?? YES???????? (ii)?? NO?????? (iii) MAYBE???? (iv) Indeterminate

15. Suppose that you conduct a poll for a Presidential Election (in the United States) by going to various medical care facilities to interview people both working there and who are there for medical treatments. Suppose you have a true random sample of all medical care facilities in the United States. Is your poll subject to the fallacy of bias?

(i)?? YES???????? (ii)? NO????

MIDTERM (15 short answer questions)

Name _______________________________________

1. If x is causally sufficient for y, then it is necessary that y is

___________________________________________________ for x.

2. Construct an evil twin for the following valid argument form:

P1: If Not-Not-F then (Z or H)

P2: Not-Not-F

C: Z or H 3. Damning evidence must be known by the arguer to whose argument it applies.

(i.) TRUE

(ii.) FALSE

(iii.) Spurious!

(iv) unknowable

4. 2 + 2 = 5 is _____________________________ for getting an F in this course. 5. Given a proof by contradiction (PBC) whose support is .4 and whose original premises

are false, the negation of the conclusion (i.) must be true (ii.) cannot be true (iii.) is

perverse (iv.) can't be evaluated for truth.

6. If x is a node in a hierarchically organized tree structure, then it is

________________________________ for all nodes in the tree structure lower than it.

7. P1: 8% of all Rutgers/Newark students will get drunk this weekend. P2: Booze-Head

is a Rutgers/Newark student. What can be inductively concluded about Booze-Head from

these premises?

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

8. (i.) Every (ii.) Not every

(iii.) No

following argument form is valid: substitution instance of the P1: If not-not-q then (not-p or not-q)

P2: Not-(Not-p or not-q)

C: Not-not-q

9. When you infer "x is causally sufficient for y" from "x is sufficient for y" without

additional information, you have committed the _____________________________________________________________________.

10. (i.) Every (ii.) Not every

(iii.) No

following argument form is invalid: substitution instance of the P1: If not-p then not-q

P2: not-q

C: not-p

11. Attending logic class and listening to Mozart?s music is

________________________________________________ for squaring the circle. 12. The reason why a PBC with support 0 is worthless is that

____________________________________ in which the augmented premise set is true,

but you do not know which one it is.

13. When we conjecture x causes y and perform an experiment to prove this is so, how do

we rule out the case that y causes x AND x and y occur at the same time?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

14. If you encounter a substitution instance of Modus Tollens in which the second

premise is clearly true, is it rational for you to believe the conclusion?

(i) YES (ii) NO (iii) MAYBE (iv) Indeterminate 15. Suppose that you conduct a poll for a Presidential Election (in the United States) by

going to various medical care facilities to interview people both working there and who

are there for medical treatments. Suppose you have a true random sample of all medical

care facilities in the United States. Is your poll subject to the fallacy of bias? (i) YES (ii) NO

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