Question Details

[answered] Module 07 Lab Worksheet: Urinary System Introduction This w


The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.

Could you help with this lab worksheet?


Module 07 Lab Worksheet: Urinary System

 

Introduction This week?s lab will examine the urinary system, the nephron, urine formation and

 

urine analysis. Objectives Objectives for this week?s lab include: 1) Identifying anatomical structures of the

 

urinary system, 2) define the function and role of a nephron, and 3) perform analysis

 

of your own urine. Overview

 

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and

 

primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out

 

of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume

 

and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.

 

The kidneys contain nephrons, which are the structural and functional units of the

 

kidneys. The nephrons consist of two components: The renal corpuscle and renal

 

tubule. The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus, a dense, condensed

 

mass of capillary blood vessels that receives blood from an afferent arteriole from

 

the renal circulation. A capsule surrounds the glomerulus, called the Bowman?s

 

capsule that collects the fluids released from the glomerulus. Basically, blood enters

 

into the renal corpuscle section of the nephron and the majority of the blood plasma

 

and other various solutes are pushed out of the glomerulus through the increased

 

glomerular blood pressure and collected in the Bowman?s capsule, which then is

 

transferred to the other portion of the nephron, the renal tubules, to be converted to

 

urine. This collected fluid resembles blood plasma except it shouldn?t contain

 

plasma proteins or blood cells.

 

The renal tubule consists of an elongated tube divided into different portions called

 

the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule. The

 

fluid collected in the Bowman?s capsule is transferred to the renal tubule and in a

 

basic concept, as the fluid flows through the renal tubules, the compounds that body

 

doesn?t want to excrete into the urine (such as water, electrolytes, glucose, vitamins),

 

will reabsorb those substances/compounds back into the blood stream via the

 

peritubular capillaries and vasa recta blood vessels surrounding the renal tubules.

 

Compounds that the body wants to excrete and dispose of through the urine (such as

 

nitrogenous waste products like urea) will stay within the renal tubules and

 

eventually be excreted from the body. Each region of the renal tubule is specialized

 

to reabsorb specific nutrients, for example, the Loop of Henle anatomical is designed

 

for water reabsorption. This filtrate passes then into the collecting duct. The collecting duct is the

 

connection between the nephrons and ureters and allows for fine-tuning of water

 

and electrolyte reabsorption. The collecting duct is influenced by the anti-diuretic,

 

aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide hormones, which ultimately regulate

 

water reabsorption through different mechanisms. If the body is in a dehydrated

 

state, the collecting duct will reabsorb more water molecules producing a more

 

concentrated urine (little water) that will have a dark yellow appearance and strong

 

?ammonia? smell. If the body is in a hydrated state, the collecting duct will reabsorb

 

less water leading to diluted urine that will be a faint yellow to clear color. This

 

process will also assist in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure along

 

with electrolyte concentration.

 

This filtered fluid from the nephrons and collecting duct, referred to as urine, is

 

collected in the ureters which transport the urine from the kidneys to the bladder no

 

matter what position the body is within. The bladder collects and stores the urine

 

and is lined with smooth muscle that contracts to expel the urine out of the bladder

 

into the urethra. The urethra connects the bladder to the external environment of

 

the body. The length of the urethra within females is much shorter compared to

 

males, which leads to increased risk of bladder infections.

 

Urinalysis is an array of tests performed on a urine sample from a dipstick urine test

 

strips that measure various concentrations and levels of substances that could be

 

found in blood such as glucose, proteins, nitrates and so forth. Another common

 

urine test is light microscopy, examining a urine sample under a light microscope to

 

view the concentration of blood cells, bacteria cells and any other solid structure

 

that may be found in a urine sample. Materials Urinalysis test strips

 

Sterile urine cups

 

Microscopes and microscope slides Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated

 

to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab

 

introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions.

 

Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these

 

questions. 1. Describe the blood flow to the kidney and within including the renal artery

 

and vein, interl obar arteries, cortical radiate arteries and afferent arteries?

 

2. In your own words, describe the anatomy and function of the components

 

that make up the renal corpuscle.

 

3. In general and in your own words, briefly describe the role of the three

 

regions to the renal tubule section of a nephron.

 

4. How does antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide

 

hormones influence the function of the collecting duct and overall blood

 

pressure?

 

5. What is the function of a urine test stripe in a urinalysis? What are some

 

structures/compounds that will be visible within a microscope examination

 

of centrifuged urine sediment? Part 01 Procedure: Nephron Anatomy

 

1. Working in groups of 2-3, you will draw the anatomical structures associated

 

with a frontal plane view of a kidney, and a nephron on the various paper

 

sheets and markers/pens provided.

 

2. For the frontal plane view of the kidney, make sure you include the following

 

anatomical structures:

 

a. Renal Capsule

 

b. Renal Cortex

 

c. Renal Column

 

d. Renal Medulla/Pyramids

 

e. Minor and Major Calyxes

 

f. Renal Pelvis

 

g. Ureter

 

h. Renal Artery 3. For the nephron, make sure you include the following anatomical structures:

 

a. Renal Corpuscle

 

i. Glomerulus

 

ii. Bowman?s Capsule

 

b. Renal Tubule

 

i. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)

 

ii. Nephron Loop/Loop of Henle

 

iii. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)

 

c. Collecting Duct

 

d. Afferent and Efferent Arteriole

 

e. Peritubular Capillaries

 

f. Vasa Recta vessels

 

g. Minor Calyx

 

4. Once you have completed the drawings of each section of the kidney, review

 

the physiological role of each anatomical structure in both pictures. After

 

your review, join with another group and have one group explain and define

 

the anatomy and physiology associated with the drawing of the frontal plane

 

view of a kidney and the other group do the same for the drawing of the

 

nephron. Part 02 Procedure: Urinalysis

 

1. Perform a mid-stream sterile urinalysis specimen on yourself with a sterile

 

urine collection cup

 

2. Using universal precautions, perform a physical inspection and urinalysis test

 

on your own urine specimen and two other urine specimens. Record the

 

results of your observations and test results in the chart below:

 

3. Record the results of the urinalysis in the chart below: Test Self Specimen Classmate Specimen A Specimen B Color

 

Odor

 

Turbidity

 

Glucose

 

Bilirubin

 

Ketone

 

Specific Gravity

 

Hemoglobin

 

pH

 

Protein

 

Urobilinogen

 

Nitrite

 

Leukocytes Part 03 Procedure: Microscopic Urinalysis

 

1. With your urine sample, pipette your urine into two urine centrifuge tubes if

 

you have enough urine specimen. If not, one sample will be proficient. Make

 

sure both tubes have the same amount of urine within them.

 

2. Hand your specimens to your instructor to be centrifuged. When the

 

centrifuged process is completed, place the urine centrifuge tubes in a beaker

 

and carefully return to your workstation. You don?t want to jostle or bump

 

the centrifuged tubes.

 

3. At your workstation, carefully examine the centrifuged tubes. You should

 

notice a small layer of sediment. You will CAREFULLY decant the supernatant

 

so just the sediment is left- basically pour off the urine so that the sediment is

 

just left; you may have to pipette the last bit of the urine. Again, you do not to disturb the sediment during this process.

 

4. Once the supernatant is decanted and only the sediment is left, re-suspend

 

the sediment in the remaining fluid by flicking the bottom of the test tube a

 

few times. Once the sediment is re-suspended, pipette the sediment and

 

place a drop on microscope slide and place a coverslip over it.

 

5. Microscopically examine the sediment of the urine sample. You may have to

 

adjust the condenser of the microscope and the amount of light with the iris

 

to have maximum viewing capabilities. Please note your observations of the

 

various cells and substances that can be observed that include cellular

 

structures, casts, foreign objects, crystals and pathogens:

 

Erythrocytes:

 

Leukocytes:

 

Epithelial Cells:

 

Casts:

 

Pathogens:

 

Crystals: Part 04 Procedure: Urinary System of Pig Specimen Dissection

 

1. Refer to the Anatomy and Physiology Dissection Guide ? Urinary Unit to

 

complete the procedure of the anatomical examination of the urinary system

 

within the pig specimen. Locate the anatomical structures (pig specimen)

 

listed in Appendix A while utilizing the dissection guide.

 

2. Make sure you store your specimen properly and disinfect your workstation

 

with the appropriate bleach solution. Post-Lab Evaluation Questions The post lab evaluation questions must be completed prior to your submission of

 

the lab. Answers for these questions will be derived from the lab protocol, the

 

weekly concepts associated with the lab and possibly research content from the

 

book and/or online resources.

 

Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these

 

questions. 1. What did you learn or find unique from the microscopic urine sediment

 

examination? What did you find you learn or fine unique from the urinary

 

system pig specimen dissection?

 

2. Why urinary bladder infections are more common within females and how

 

do they occur? How is the prostate and urinary bladder infections related in

 

men?

 

3. Renal calculi, aka kidney stones, is a very painful condition. Briefly describe

 

how this condition develops, the complications of it and how it is treated.

 

How does the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test related to this condition?

 

4. What is dialysis and the function of it? Why would an individual have to

 

undergo this procedure and what are the complications of it?

 

5. Regarding the urinalysis test stripes, in general, what diseases/conditions

 

could be indicated with the following results

 

a. Increased glucose levels:

 

b. Increase protein levels:

 

c. Increased nitrate/leukocyte levels:

 

d. Increased ketone levels: Appendix A- Urinary System

 

Structures To Identify For The Mid-Term and Final Laboratory Exams

 

Pig Specimen Kidney

 

o Renal capsule

 

o Renal cortex

 

o Renal medulla Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Ureter Bladder Urethra

 

Human Specimen Kidney

 

o Renal capsule

 

o Renal cortex

 

o Renal medulla Renal pyramids Nephron

 

o Renal corpuscle Glomerulus Bowman?s capsule

 

o Renal tubules Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Major and minor calyxes Ureter Bladder

 

o Detrusor muscle Urethra

 

o Internal and external urethral sphincter Urethral orifice Afferent and efferent arteriole Peritubular and vasa recta capillaries

 


Solution details:
STATUS
Answered
QUALITY
Approved
ANSWER RATING

This question was answered on: Sep 18, 2020

PRICE: $15

Solution~0001013965.zip (25.37 KB)

Buy this answer for only: $15

This attachment is locked

We have a ready expert answer for this paper which you can use for in-depth understanding, research editing or paraphrasing. You can buy it or order for a fresh, original and plagiarism-free copy from our tutoring website www.aceyourhomework.com (Deadline assured. Flexible pricing. TurnItIn Report provided)

Pay using PayPal (No PayPal account Required) or your credit card . All your purchases are securely protected by .
SiteLock

About this Question

STATUS

Answered

QUALITY

Approved

DATE ANSWERED

Sep 18, 2020

EXPERT

Tutor

ANSWER RATING

GET INSTANT HELP/h4>

We have top-notch tutors who can do your essay/homework for you at a reasonable cost and then you can simply use that essay as a template to build your own arguments.

You can also use these solutions:

  • As a reference for in-depth understanding of the subject.
  • As a source of ideas / reasoning for your own research (if properly referenced)
  • For editing and paraphrasing (check your institution's definition of plagiarism and recommended paraphrase).
This we believe is a better way of understanding a problem and makes use of the efficiency of time of the student.

NEW ASSIGNMENT HELP?

Order New Solution. Quick Turnaround

Click on the button below in order to Order for a New, Original and High-Quality Essay Solutions. New orders are original solutions and precise to your writing instruction requirements. Place a New Order using the button below.

WE GUARANTEE, THAT YOUR PAPER WILL BE WRITTEN FROM SCRATCH AND WITHIN YOUR SET DEADLINE.

Order Now