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[answered] Module 07 Lab Worksheet: Urinary System Introduction This w

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.

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Module 07 Lab Worksheet: Urinary System


Introduction This week?s lab will examine the urinary system, the nephron, urine formation and


urine analysis. Objectives Objectives for this week?s lab include: 1) Identifying anatomical structures of the


urinary system, 2) define the function and role of a nephron, and 3) perform analysis


of your own urine. Overview


The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and


primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out


of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume


and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.


The kidneys contain nephrons, which are the structural and functional units of the


kidneys. The nephrons consist of two components: The renal corpuscle and renal


tubule. The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus, a dense, condensed


mass of capillary blood vessels that receives blood from an afferent arteriole from


the renal circulation. A capsule surrounds the glomerulus, called the Bowman?s


capsule that collects the fluids released from the glomerulus. Basically, blood enters


into the renal corpuscle section of the nephron and the majority of the blood plasma


and other various solutes are pushed out of the glomerulus through the increased


glomerular blood pressure and collected in the Bowman?s capsule, which then is


transferred to the other portion of the nephron, the renal tubules, to be converted to


urine. This collected fluid resembles blood plasma except it shouldn?t contain


plasma proteins or blood cells.


The renal tubule consists of an elongated tube divided into different portions called


the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule. The


fluid collected in the Bowman?s capsule is transferred to the renal tubule and in a


basic concept, as the fluid flows through the renal tubules, the compounds that body


doesn?t want to excrete into the urine (such as water, electrolytes, glucose, vitamins),


will reabsorb those substances/compounds back into the blood stream via the


peritubular capillaries and vasa recta blood vessels surrounding the renal tubules.


Compounds that the body wants to excrete and dispose of through the urine (such as


nitrogenous waste products like urea) will stay within the renal tubules and


eventually be excreted from the body. Each region of the renal tubule is specialized


to reabsorb specific nutrients, for example, the Loop of Henle anatomical is designed


for water reabsorption. This filtrate passes then into the collecting duct. The collecting duct is the


connection between the nephrons and ureters and allows for fine-tuning of water


and electrolyte reabsorption. The collecting duct is influenced by the anti-diuretic,


aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide hormones, which ultimately regulate


water reabsorption through different mechanisms. If the body is in a dehydrated


state, the collecting duct will reabsorb more water molecules producing a more


concentrated urine (little water) that will have a dark yellow appearance and strong


?ammonia? smell. If the body is in a hydrated state, the collecting duct will reabsorb


less water leading to diluted urine that will be a faint yellow to clear color. This


process will also assist in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure along


with electrolyte concentration.


This filtered fluid from the nephrons and collecting duct, referred to as urine, is


collected in the ureters which transport the urine from the kidneys to the bladder no


matter what position the body is within. The bladder collects and stores the urine


and is lined with smooth muscle that contracts to expel the urine out of the bladder


into the urethra. The urethra connects the bladder to the external environment of


the body. The length of the urethra within females is much shorter compared to


males, which leads to increased risk of bladder infections.


Urinalysis is an array of tests performed on a urine sample from a dipstick urine test


strips that measure various concentrations and levels of substances that could be


found in blood such as glucose, proteins, nitrates and so forth. Another common


urine test is light microscopy, examining a urine sample under a light microscope to


view the concentration of blood cells, bacteria cells and any other solid structure


that may be found in a urine sample. Materials Urinalysis test strips


Sterile urine cups


Microscopes and microscope slides Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated


to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab


introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions.


Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these


questions. 1. Describe the blood flow to the kidney and within including the renal artery


and vein, interl obar arteries, cortical radiate arteries and afferent arteries?


2. In your own words, describe the anatomy and function of the components


that make up the renal corpuscle.


3. In general and in your own words, briefly describe the role of the three


regions to the renal tubule section of a nephron.


4. How does antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide


hormones influence the function of the collecting duct and overall blood




5. What is the function of a urine test stripe in a urinalysis? What are some


structures/compounds that will be visible within a microscope examination


of centrifuged urine sediment? Part 01 Procedure: Nephron Anatomy


1. Working in groups of 2-3, you will draw the anatomical structures associated


with a frontal plane view of a kidney, and a nephron on the various paper


sheets and markers/pens provided.


2. For the frontal plane view of the kidney, make sure you include the following


anatomical structures:


a. Renal Capsule


b. Renal Cortex


c. Renal Column


d. Renal Medulla/Pyramids


e. Minor and Major Calyxes


f. Renal Pelvis


g. Ureter


h. Renal Artery 3. For the nephron, make sure you include the following anatomical structures:


a. Renal Corpuscle


i. Glomerulus


ii. Bowman?s Capsule


b. Renal Tubule


i. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)


ii. Nephron Loop/Loop of Henle


iii. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)


c. Collecting Duct


d. Afferent and Efferent Arteriole


e. Peritubular Capillaries


f. Vasa Recta vessels


g. Minor Calyx


4. Once you have completed the drawings of each section of the kidney, review


the physiological role of each anatomical structure in both pictures. After


your review, join with another group and have one group explain and define


the anatomy and physiology associated with the drawing of the frontal plane


view of a kidney and the other group do the same for the drawing of the


nephron. Part 02 Procedure: Urinalysis


1. Perform a mid-stream sterile urinalysis specimen on yourself with a sterile


urine collection cup


2. Using universal precautions, perform a physical inspection and urinalysis test


on your own urine specimen and two other urine specimens. Record the


results of your observations and test results in the chart below:


3. Record the results of the urinalysis in the chart below: Test Self Specimen Classmate Specimen A Specimen B Color












Specific Gravity












Leukocytes Part 03 Procedure: Microscopic Urinalysis


1. With your urine sample, pipette your urine into two urine centrifuge tubes if


you have enough urine specimen. If not, one sample will be proficient. Make


sure both tubes have the same amount of urine within them.


2. Hand your specimens to your instructor to be centrifuged. When the


centrifuged process is completed, place the urine centrifuge tubes in a beaker


and carefully return to your workstation. You don?t want to jostle or bump


the centrifuged tubes.


3. At your workstation, carefully examine the centrifuged tubes. You should


notice a small layer of sediment. You will CAREFULLY decant the supernatant


so just the sediment is left- basically pour off the urine so that the sediment is


just left; you may have to pipette the last bit of the urine. Again, you do not to disturb the sediment during this process.


4. Once the supernatant is decanted and only the sediment is left, re-suspend


the sediment in the remaining fluid by flicking the bottom of the test tube a


few times. Once the sediment is re-suspended, pipette the sediment and


place a drop on microscope slide and place a coverslip over it.


5. Microscopically examine the sediment of the urine sample. You may have to


adjust the condenser of the microscope and the amount of light with the iris


to have maximum viewing capabilities. Please note your observations of the


various cells and substances that can be observed that include cellular


structures, casts, foreign objects, crystals and pathogens:






Epithelial Cells:






Crystals: Part 04 Procedure: Urinary System of Pig Specimen Dissection


1. Refer to the Anatomy and Physiology Dissection Guide ? Urinary Unit to


complete the procedure of the anatomical examination of the urinary system


within the pig specimen. Locate the anatomical structures (pig specimen)


listed in Appendix A while utilizing the dissection guide.


2. Make sure you store your specimen properly and disinfect your workstation


with the appropriate bleach solution. Post-Lab Evaluation Questions The post lab evaluation questions must be completed prior to your submission of


the lab. Answers for these questions will be derived from the lab protocol, the


weekly concepts associated with the lab and possibly research content from the


book and/or online resources.


Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these


questions. 1. What did you learn or find unique from the microscopic urine sediment


examination? What did you find you learn or fine unique from the urinary


system pig specimen dissection?


2. Why urinary bladder infections are more common within females and how


do they occur? How is the prostate and urinary bladder infections related in




3. Renal calculi, aka kidney stones, is a very painful condition. Briefly describe


how this condition develops, the complications of it and how it is treated.


How does the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test related to this condition?


4. What is dialysis and the function of it? Why would an individual have to


undergo this procedure and what are the complications of it?


5. Regarding the urinalysis test stripes, in general, what diseases/conditions


could be indicated with the following results


a. Increased glucose levels:


b. Increase protein levels:


c. Increased nitrate/leukocyte levels:


d. Increased ketone levels: Appendix A- Urinary System


Structures To Identify For The Mid-Term and Final Laboratory Exams


Pig Specimen Kidney


o Renal capsule


o Renal cortex


o Renal medulla Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Ureter Bladder Urethra


Human Specimen Kidney


o Renal capsule


o Renal cortex


o Renal medulla Renal pyramids Nephron


o Renal corpuscle Glomerulus Bowman?s capsule


o Renal tubules Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Major and minor calyxes Ureter Bladder


o Detrusor muscle Urethra


o Internal and external urethral sphincter Urethral orifice Afferent and efferent arteriole Peritubular and vasa recta capillaries


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