The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.
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Module 07 Lab Worksheet: Urinary System
Introduction This week?s lab will examine the urinary system, the nephron, urine formation and
urine analysis. Objectives Objectives for this week?s lab include: 1) Identifying anatomical structures of the
urinary system, 2) define the function and role of a nephron, and 3) perform analysis
of your own urine. Overview
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra and
primarily functions to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them out
of the body. The urinary system also assists in the vital processes of blood volume
and blood pressure regulation along with electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.
The kidneys contain nephrons, which are the structural and functional units of the
kidneys. The nephrons consist of two components: The renal corpuscle and renal
tubule. The renal corpuscle is composed of the glomerulus, a dense, condensed
mass of capillary blood vessels that receives blood from an afferent arteriole from
the renal circulation. A capsule surrounds the glomerulus, called the Bowman?s
capsule that collects the fluids released from the glomerulus. Basically, blood enters
into the renal corpuscle section of the nephron and the majority of the blood plasma
and other various solutes are pushed out of the glomerulus through the increased
glomerular blood pressure and collected in the Bowman?s capsule, which then is
transferred to the other portion of the nephron, the renal tubules, to be converted to
urine. This collected fluid resembles blood plasma except it shouldn?t contain
plasma proteins or blood cells.
The renal tubule consists of an elongated tube divided into different portions called
the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and distal convoluted tubule. The
fluid collected in the Bowman?s capsule is transferred to the renal tubule and in a
basic concept, as the fluid flows through the renal tubules, the compounds that body
doesn?t want to excrete into the urine (such as water, electrolytes, glucose, vitamins),
will reabsorb those substances/compounds back into the blood stream via the
peritubular capillaries and vasa recta blood vessels surrounding the renal tubules.
Compounds that the body wants to excrete and dispose of through the urine (such as
nitrogenous waste products like urea) will stay within the renal tubules and
eventually be excreted from the body. Each region of the renal tubule is specialized
to reabsorb specific nutrients, for example, the Loop of Henle anatomical is designed
for water reabsorption. This filtrate passes then into the collecting duct. The collecting duct is the
connection between the nephrons and ureters and allows for fine-tuning of water
and electrolyte reabsorption. The collecting duct is influenced by the anti-diuretic,
aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide hormones, which ultimately regulate
water reabsorption through different mechanisms. If the body is in a dehydrated
state, the collecting duct will reabsorb more water molecules producing a more
concentrated urine (little water) that will have a dark yellow appearance and strong
?ammonia? smell. If the body is in a hydrated state, the collecting duct will reabsorb
less water leading to diluted urine that will be a faint yellow to clear color. This
process will also assist in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure along
with electrolyte concentration.
This filtered fluid from the nephrons and collecting duct, referred to as urine, is
collected in the ureters which transport the urine from the kidneys to the bladder no
matter what position the body is within. The bladder collects and stores the urine
and is lined with smooth muscle that contracts to expel the urine out of the bladder
into the urethra. The urethra connects the bladder to the external environment of
the body. The length of the urethra within females is much shorter compared to
males, which leads to increased risk of bladder infections.
Urinalysis is an array of tests performed on a urine sample from a dipstick urine test
strips that measure various concentrations and levels of substances that could be
found in blood such as glucose, proteins, nitrates and so forth. Another common
urine test is light microscopy, examining a urine sample under a light microscope to
view the concentration of blood cells, bacteria cells and any other solid structure
that may be found in a urine sample. Materials Urinalysis test strips
Sterile urine cups
Microscopes and microscope slides Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated
to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab
introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions.
Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these
questions. 1. Describe the blood flow to the kidney and within including the renal artery
and vein, interl obar arteries, cortical radiate arteries and afferent arteries?
2. In your own words, describe the anatomy and function of the components
that make up the renal corpuscle.
3. In general and in your own words, briefly describe the role of the three
regions to the renal tubule section of a nephron.
4. How does antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide
hormones influence the function of the collecting duct and overall blood
5. What is the function of a urine test stripe in a urinalysis? What are some
structures/compounds that will be visible within a microscope examination
of centrifuged urine sediment? Part 01 Procedure: Nephron Anatomy
1. Working in groups of 2-3, you will draw the anatomical structures associated
with a frontal plane view of a kidney, and a nephron on the various paper
sheets and markers/pens provided.
2. For the frontal plane view of the kidney, make sure you include the following
a. Renal Capsule
b. Renal Cortex
c. Renal Column
d. Renal Medulla/Pyramids
e. Minor and Major Calyxes
f. Renal Pelvis
h. Renal Artery 3. For the nephron, make sure you include the following anatomical structures:
a. Renal Corpuscle
ii. Bowman?s Capsule
b. Renal Tubule
i. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
ii. Nephron Loop/Loop of Henle
iii. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
c. Collecting Duct
d. Afferent and Efferent Arteriole
e. Peritubular Capillaries
f. Vasa Recta vessels
g. Minor Calyx
4. Once you have completed the drawings of each section of the kidney, review
the physiological role of each anatomical structure in both pictures. After
your review, join with another group and have one group explain and define
the anatomy and physiology associated with the drawing of the frontal plane
view of a kidney and the other group do the same for the drawing of the
nephron. Part 02 Procedure: Urinalysis
1. Perform a mid-stream sterile urinalysis specimen on yourself with a sterile
urine collection cup
2. Using universal precautions, perform a physical inspection and urinalysis test
on your own urine specimen and two other urine specimens. Record the
results of your observations and test results in the chart below:
3. Record the results of the urinalysis in the chart below: Test Self Specimen Classmate Specimen A Specimen B Color
Leukocytes Part 03 Procedure: Microscopic Urinalysis
1. With your urine sample, pipette your urine into two urine centrifuge tubes if
you have enough urine specimen. If not, one sample will be proficient. Make
sure both tubes have the same amount of urine within them.
2. Hand your specimens to your instructor to be centrifuged. When the
centrifuged process is completed, place the urine centrifuge tubes in a beaker
and carefully return to your workstation. You don?t want to jostle or bump
the centrifuged tubes.
3. At your workstation, carefully examine the centrifuged tubes. You should
notice a small layer of sediment. You will CAREFULLY decant the supernatant
so just the sediment is left- basically pour off the urine so that the sediment is
just left; you may have to pipette the last bit of the urine. Again, you do not to disturb the sediment during this process.
4. Once the supernatant is decanted and only the sediment is left, re-suspend
the sediment in the remaining fluid by flicking the bottom of the test tube a
few times. Once the sediment is re-suspended, pipette the sediment and
place a drop on microscope slide and place a coverslip over it.
5. Microscopically examine the sediment of the urine sample. You may have to
adjust the condenser of the microscope and the amount of light with the iris
to have maximum viewing capabilities. Please note your observations of the
various cells and substances that can be observed that include cellular
structures, casts, foreign objects, crystals and pathogens:
Crystals: Part 04 Procedure: Urinary System of Pig Specimen Dissection
1. Refer to the Anatomy and Physiology Dissection Guide ? Urinary Unit to
complete the procedure of the anatomical examination of the urinary system
within the pig specimen. Locate the anatomical structures (pig specimen)
listed in Appendix A while utilizing the dissection guide.
2. Make sure you store your specimen properly and disinfect your workstation
with the appropriate bleach solution. Post-Lab Evaluation Questions The post lab evaluation questions must be completed prior to your submission of
the lab. Answers for these questions will be derived from the lab protocol, the
weekly concepts associated with the lab and possibly research content from the
book and/or online resources.
Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these
questions. 1. What did you learn or find unique from the microscopic urine sediment
examination? What did you find you learn or fine unique from the urinary
system pig specimen dissection?
2. Why urinary bladder infections are more common within females and how
do they occur? How is the prostate and urinary bladder infections related in
3. Renal calculi, aka kidney stones, is a very painful condition. Briefly describe
how this condition develops, the complications of it and how it is treated.
How does the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test related to this condition?
4. What is dialysis and the function of it? Why would an individual have to
undergo this procedure and what are the complications of it?
5. Regarding the urinalysis test stripes, in general, what diseases/conditions
could be indicated with the following results
a. Increased glucose levels:
b. Increase protein levels:
c. Increased nitrate/leukocyte levels:
d. Increased ketone levels: Appendix A- Urinary System
Structures To Identify For The Mid-Term and Final Laboratory Exams
Pig Specimen Kidney
o Renal capsule
o Renal cortex
o Renal medulla Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Ureter Bladder Urethra
Human Specimen Kidney
o Renal capsule
o Renal cortex
o Renal medulla Renal pyramids Nephron
o Renal corpuscle Glomerulus Bowman?s capsule
o Renal tubules Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Renal pelvis Renal hilum Renal artery and vein Major and minor calyxes Ureter Bladder
o Detrusor muscle Urethra
o Internal and external urethral sphincter Urethral orifice Afferent and efferent arteriole Peritubular and vasa recta capillaries
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