Using the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model, conduct an analysis of Whole Foods Market's inputs and how they align with the strategy, as well as its outputs.
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Module 3 - Case
CONGRUENCE MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The Excellent Consulting Group
Communication from Art:
I reviewed your report regarding Organizational Diagnosis, and I
thought you did a nice job. I presented your recommendation to
ABC Company and Whole Foods Market, and had several
discussions with them.
They've finally decided that they want to use the Nadler-Tushman
Congruence Model to analyze the overall congruence in the
company ? they like the Input and Output analysis that this model
First, the company's executives are interested in the Inputs,
including the strategy. They are interested in getting an objective
opinion of what their critical inputs are and how they align with their
strategy. So I suggest that you very quickly brush up more on the
Congruence model, particularly for this assignment on inputs.
Second, we need to analyze how Whole Foods Market has been
doing in terms of its performance and how it stacks up against its
goals. We will do this at three levels: the overall organizational level,
the group level, and the individual level. The Congruence Model
explains this well. You should be up to speed on this model.
The executives also want to know how congruent the outputs are
across the three levels. Given your analysis of performance at each
of the three levels, are the interactions of these outputs congruent highly, somewhat, or very little? Make this determination and
support it with a logical argument using the information that you
obtain about Whole Foods Market's goals and performance.
Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. (1980). A model for diagnosing
organizational behavior. Organizational Dynamics, 9(2), 35-51.
doi:10.1016/0090-2616(80)90039-X Case Assignment Using the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model, conduct an analysis
of Whole Foods Market's inputs and how they align with the
strategy, as well as its outputs.
For the analysis, I suggest that you start with strategy, since you
have already done some work on this aspect in your first report.
Review Whole Foods Market?s strategy and then determine which
one of Porter?s competitive strategies fits with this strategy. Then
review the company?s inputs and determine one or two specific
critical inputs from each input category: environment, resources,
Ultimately, I want you to determine how aligned the critical inputs
are with the strategy. Is there high congruence (alignment), some
congruence, or little to no congruence? I expect you to support your
claim with a good, logical argument using the information you have
In order to make this case, you first need to review the strategy and
then classify it as one of Porter?s competitive strategies. Then
identify the Key Input factors in the first three categories. Explain
why these are the critical input factors. Then determine how
congruent the three input factors are with the strategy.
Then use the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Module to analyze
Whole Foods Market's outputs. Start with the Organizational Level.
Identify the Outputs - what does it produce and sell? What are its
goals? How has it been performing? Then go the group level. What
are some groups that Whole Foods Market identifies, and the goals
and performance of these groups. Finally, discuss the Individual
level. Here you will find it difficult to get much detailed information,
so identify five to seven key jobs and their outputs. How can the
performance of these jobs be measured? Finally determine the
congruence of the outputs and make a strong argument for your
Be sure to include references. Turn in the 6- to 8-page paper by the
end of the module.
KEYS TO THE ASSIGNMENT:
1. Discuss the organization?s strategy and classify it according to
Porter?s three generic competitive strategies.
2. Identify the most critical inputs in each of the first three categories and
justify why they are critical. Also explain what effect the inputs from one
category have on inputs from the other categories. How well does the 3. 4. 5. strategy fit with the environmental, resource and historical inputs you
Make a Case for your proposition as to how the Key Inputs support
(are congruent with) the Strategy. Specifically make a claim: ?The
inputs at Whole Foods Market consisting of Organizational
Environment factors, Internal Resource factors, and Historical Tradition
factors are [highly, partially, or minimally] congruent with the company?s
In order to make your case you need to identify the outputs of the
organization at each of three levels. Also identify the goals that it has
set and its current performance. Include the following:
Outputs at the organizational level are the products and/or services
that it provides to its customers. What are these and how does the
company categorize them? How does it measure its organizational
performance (e.g., sales, net profit, return on sales, return on assets,
market share, customer satisfaction, etc.). Provide some specific
What are some ways the company identifies groups? For example, are
there geographic groups (or divisions), functional groups, etc. What are
the outputs of these groups? How does it (or how might it) measure
performance of these groups?
What are some of the key individual functions, and what are their
outputs? How do these outputs contribute to the group outputs? How
do they measure individual performance?
Evaluate how the outputs at the different levels interact with each other.
Determine if you think the congruence of the outputs is high, medium,
or low. Then make a strong case. It is very important that you support
your position with evidence and information that you have discussed
earlier in the report.
Support your analysis with objective evidence. Sources of information
for the entire project may include interviews, organizational documents
and reports, articles in newspapers, and trade publications. Be sure to
cite your sources and provide a list of references.
Write up your report in a 6- to 8-page paper and submit it by the end
of the module. Assignment Expectations
Your paper will be evaluated on the following seven points: Precision - Does the paper address the question(s) or task(s)? Breadth - Is the full breadth of the subject, that is, the Keys to the
Assignment, addressed? Depth - Does the paper address the topic in sufficient depth and
include the background readings and other background resources as
references? Critical thinking - Is the subject thought about critically, that is,
accurately, logically, relevantly, and precisely? Clarity - Is the writing clear and are the concepts articulated properly?
Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of
responding to the questions or are points conveyed through excessive
use of quotations? Organization - Is the paper well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and
vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are headings included
in all papers longer than two pages? Referencing (citations and references) - Does the paper include
citations and quotation marks where appropriate? Are the references
from the background readings and assignment present and properly
cited? Are all the references listed in the bibliography present and
referred to via citation?
TIPS AND SUGGESTIONS You may use a simple diagram to highlight important factors. However,
do not use the diagram in lieu of valuable analysis (or to take up
valuable writing space) - it should be in addition to your paper of 6-8
pages of analysis. Just because you have written the minimum four pages does not mean
that you have adequately covered the topic. Err on the side of writing
more rather than less. Choose the data you use carefully. Is it relevant and important? Include a cover page and reference page, in addition to the 6-8 pages
of analysis described above. Include headings within the paper. Cite and reference all sources that you use in your work, including
those that you paraphrase. This means include citations and quotation
marks for direct quotes of more than five words, and citations for that
information which you have "borrowed" or paraphrased from other
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