Good Morning, I was wondering if I could get some assistance with these computer science concepts. Thank you in advance!
Module 4 - Case
INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING UBUNTU
What is Linux?
Ubuntu is built on the foundation of Linux, which is a member of the Unix family. Unix is one of the
oldest types of operating systems, and together with Linux has provided reliability and security for
professional applications for almost half a century. Many servers around the world that store data for
popular websites (such as YouTube and Google) run some variant of Linux or Unix. The popular Android
system for smartphones is a Linux variant; modern in-car computers usually run on Linux. Even Apple OS
x is based on Unix. The Linux kernel is best described as the core?almost the brain?of the Ubuntu
The Linux kernel is the controller of the operating system; it is responsible for allocating memory and
processor time. It can also be thought of as the program which manages any and all applications on the
computer itself. While modern graphical desktop environments have generally replaced early command
line interfaces, the command line can still be a quick and efficient way of performing many tasks.
Linux was designed from the ground up with security and hardware compatibility in mind, and is
currently one of the most popular Unix-based operating systems. One of the benefits of Linux is that it is
incredibly flexible and can be configured to run on almost any device?from the smallest microcomputers and cellphones to the largest super-computers. Unix was entirely command line-based until
graphical user interfaces (GUIs) emerged in 1973 (in comparison, Apple came out with Mac os ten years
later, and Microsoft released Windows 1.0 in 1985).
The early GUIs were difficult to configure, clunky, and generally only used by seasoned computer
programmers. In the past decade, however, graphical user interfaces have grown in usability, reliability,
and appearance. Ubuntu is one of many different Linux distributions.
1. Getting Ubuntu
Before you can get started with Ubuntu, you will need to obtain a copy of the Ubuntu installation image
for DVD or USB. Some options for doing this are outlined below.
2. Minimum system requirements
If you are unsure whether it will work on your computer, the Live DVD is a great way to test things out
first. Below is a list of hardware specifications that your computer should meet as a minimum
requirement. 1 GHz x86 processor (Pentium 4 or better) 1 gb of system memory (RAM) 5 gb of disk space (at least 15 gb is recommended) Video support capable of 1024?768 resolution Audio support 3. Downloading Ubuntu
The easiest and most common method for getting Ubuntu is to download the Ubuntu DVD image
directly from http://www.ubuntu.com/download.
Choose how you will install Ubuntu: Download and install Try it from a DVD or USB stick 3.1.Download and Install/Try it from a DVD or USB stick
For the Download and install, or Try it from a DVD or USB stick options, select whether you require the
32-bit or 64-bit version (32-bit is recommended for most users), then click ?Start download.?
32-bit vs. 64-bit
Ubuntu and its derivatives are available in two versions: 32-bit and 64-bit. This difference refers to the
way computers process information. Computers capable of running 64-bit software are able to process
more information than computers running 32-bit software; however, 64-bit systems require more
memory in order to do this. Nevertheless, these computers gain performance enhancements by running
64-bit software. If your computer has a 64-bit processor, install the 64-bit version. If your computer is older, a netbook, or you do not know the type of processor in the computer,
install the 32-bit version. If your computer has a 64-bit processor, select the ?64-bit? option before you click ?Start download.?
4. Burning the DVD image
Once your download is complete, you will be left with a file called ubuntu-14.04-desktop-i386.iso or
similar (i386 here in the filename refers to the 32-bit version. If you downloaded the 64-bit version, the
filename contains amd64 instead). This file is a DVD image?a snapshot of the contents of a DVD?which
you will need to burn to a DVD.
5. Creating a bootable USB drive
If your PC is able to boot from a USB stick, you may prefer to use a USB memory stick instead of burning
a DVD. Scroll down to ?Burn your DVD or create a USB drive,? select DVD or USB stick, choose the OS you
are using to create the USB drive, and then click Show me how. If you select the ?USB Stick? option, your
installation will be running from the USB memory stick. In this case, references to Live DVD, will refer to
the USB memory stick.
6. Trying out Ubuntu
The Ubuntu DVD and USB stick function not only as installation media, but also allow you to test Ubuntu
without making any permanent changes to your computer by running the entire operating system from
the DVD or USB stick. Your computer reads information from a DVD at a much slower speed than it can read information off of
a hard drive. Running Ubuntu from the Live DVD also occupies a large portion of your computer?s
memory, which would usually be available for applications to access when Ubuntu is running from your
hard drive. The Live DVD/USB experience will therefore feel slightly slower than it does when Ubuntu is
actually installed on your computer. Running Ubuntu from the DVD/USB is a great way to test things out
and allows you to try the default applications, browse the Internet, and get a general feel for the
operating system. It?s also useful for checking that your computer hardware works properly in Ubuntu
and that there are no major compatibility issues.
To try out Ubuntu using the Live DVD/USB stick, insert the Ubuntu DVD into your DVD drive, or connect
the USB drive and restart your computer. After your computer finds the Live DVD/USB stick, and a quick
loading screen, you will be presented with the ?Welcome? screen. Using your mouse, select your
language from the list on the left, then click the button labelled Try Ubuntu. Ubuntu will then start up,
running directly from the Live DVD/USB drive.
Once Ubuntu is up and running, you will see the default desktop. Feel free to test things out. Open some
applications, change settings and generally explore?any changes you make will not be saved once you
exit, so you don?t need to worry about accidentally breaking anything.
When you are finished exploring, restart your computer by clicking the ?Power? button in the top right
corner of your screen (a circle with a line through the top) and then select Restart. Follow the prompts
that appear on screen, including removing the Live DVD and pressing Enter when instructed, and then
your computer will restart. As long as the Live DVD is no longer in the drive, your computer will return to
its original state as though nothing ever happened! 7. Installing Ubuntu?Getting started
At least 5 DB of free space on your hard drive is required in order to install Ubuntu. We recommend 15
gb or more. This will ensure that you will have plenty of room to install extra applications later on, as
well as store your own documents, music, and photos. To get started, place the Ubuntu DVD in your DVD
drive and restart your computer. Your computer should load Ubuntu from the DVD. When you first start
from the DVD, you will be presented with a screen asking you whether you want to first try out Ubuntu
or install it. Select the language you want to view the installer in and click on the Install Ubuntu button.
This will start the installation process.
If you have an Internet connection, the installer will ask you if you would like to ?Download updates
while installing.? We recommend you do so. The second option, ?Install this third-party software,?
Fluendo MP3 codec, and software required for some wireless hardware. If you are not connected to the
Internet, the installer will help you set up a wireless connection.
The ?Preparing to install Ubuntu? screen will also let you know if you have enough disk space and if you
are connected to a power source (in case you are installing Ubuntu on a laptop running on battery). Once
you have selected your choices, click Continue. Internet connection
If you are not connected to the Internet, the installer will ask you to choose a wireless network (if
1. Select Connect to this network, and then select your network from the list.
2. If the list does not appear immediately, wait until a triangle/arrow appears next to the
network adapter, and then click the arrow to see the available networks.
3. In the Password field, enter the network wep or wpa key (if necessary).
4. Click Connect to continue. Allocate drive space
The Ubuntu installer will automatically detect any existing operating system installed on your machine,
and present installation options suitable for your system. The options listed below depend on your
specific system and may not all be available:
? Install alongside other operating systems
? Upgrade Ubuntu ? to 14.04
? Erase ? and install Ubuntu
? Something else
Install alongside other operating systems.
For more complicated dual-booting setups, you will need to configure the partitions manually. Upgrade Ubuntu ? to 14.04
This option will keep all of your Documents, music, pictures, and other personal files. Installed software
will be kept when possible (not all your currently installed software may be supported on the new
version). System wide settings will be cleared.
Erase disk and install Ubuntu
Use this option if you want to erase your entire disk. This will delete any existing operating systems that
are installed on that disk, such as Microsoft Windows, and install Ubuntu in its place. This option is also
useful if you have an empty hard drive, as Ubuntu will automatically create the necessary partitions for
Formatting a partition will destroy any data currently on the partition. Be sure to back up any data you
want to save before formatting. More information and detailed instructions on partitioning are available
After you have chosen the installation type, click Continue, or Install Now.
Confirm Partition choices and start install
If you chose Something else, configure the partitions as you need. Once you are happy with the way the
partitions are going to be set up, click the Install Now button at the bottom right to move on. To reduce the time required for installation, Ubuntu will continue the installation process in the
background while you configure important user details?like your username, password, keyboard
settings and default time zone.
Where are you?
The next screen will display a world map. Using your mouse, click your geographic location on the map
to tell Ubuntu where you are. Alternatively, you can type your location in the field below the map. This
allows Ubuntu to configure your system clock and other location-based features. Click Continue when
you are ready to move on. Keyboard layout
Next, you need to tell Ubuntu what kind of keyboard you are using. In most cases, you will find the
suggested option satisfactory. If you are unsure which keyboard option to select, you can click the Detect
Keyboard Layout button to have Ubuntu determine the correct choice by asking you to press a series of
keys. You can also manually choose your keyboard layout from the list of options. If you like, enter text
into the box at the bottom of the window to ensure you are happy with your selection, then
click Continue. Who are you?
Ubuntu needs to know some information about you so it can set up the primary user account on your
computer. When configured, your name will appear on the login screen as well as the user menu.
On this screen you will need to tell Ubuntu: your name what you want to call your computer your desired username your desired password how you want Ubuntu to log you in Enter your full name under Your name. The next text field is the name your computer uses, for terminals
and networks. You can change this to what you want, or keep the predetermined name. Next is your
username, the name that is used for the user menu, your home folder, and behind the scenes. You will
see this is automatically filled in for you with your first name. Most people find it easiest to stick with
this. However, it can be changed if you prefer.
Next, choose a password and enter it into both password fields. When both passwords match, a strength
rating will appear to the right that will show you whether your password is ?too short,? ?weak,? ?fair,? or
?strong.? You will be able to continue the installation process regardless of your password strength, but
for security reasons it is best to choose a strong one. This is best achieved by having a password that is at
least six characters long, and is a mixture of letters, numbers, symbols, and uppercase/lowercase. Avoid
obvious passwords that include your birth date, spouse?s name, or the name of your pet.
Finally, at the bottom of this screen you have two options regarding how you wish to log in to Ubuntu.
You may also choose to have Ubuntu encrypt your home folder. Log in automatically Require my password to log in
o Encrypt my home folder Log in automatically
Ubuntu will log in to your primary account automatically when you start up the computer so you won?t
have to enter your username and password. This makes your login experience quicker and more
convenient, but if privacy or security is important to you, we don?t recommend this option.
Anyone who can physically access your computer will be able to turn it on and also access your files.
Require my password to login
This option is selected by default, as it will prevent unauthorized people from accessing your computer
without knowing the password you created earlier. This is a good option for those who, for example,
share their computer with other family members. Once the installation process has been completed, an
additional login account can be created for each family member. Each person will then have their own
login name and password, account preferences, Internet bookmarks, and personal storage space.
Encrypt my home folder
This option provides you with an added layer of security. Your home folder is where your personal files
are stored. By selecting this option, Ubuntu will automatically enable encryption on your home folder,
meaning that files and folders must be decrypted using your password before they can be accessed.
Therefore if someone had physical access to your hard drive (for example, if your computer was stolen
and the hard drive removed), they would not be able to see your files without knowing your password.
If you choose this option, be careful not to enable automatic login at a later date. It will cause
complications with your encrypted home folder, and will potentially lock you out of important files.
Ubuntu will now finish installing on your hard drive. As the installation progresses, a slideshow will give
you an introduction to some of the default applications included with Ubuntu. The slideshow will also
highlight the Ubuntu support options.
After approximately twenty minutes, the installation will complete and you will be able to click Restart
Now to restart your computer and start Ubuntu. The DVD will be ejected, so remove it from your DVD
drive and press Enter to continue.
Wait while your computer restarts, and you will then see the login window (unless you selected
automatic login). Login Screen
After the installation has finished and your computer is restarted, you will be greeted by the login screen
of Ubuntu. The login screen will present you with your username and you will have to enter the
password to get past it. Click your username and enter your password. Once done, you may click the
arrow or press Enter to get into the Ubuntu desktop. Ubuntu?s login screen supports multiple users and
also supports custom backgrounds for each user. In fact, Ubuntu automatically will pick up your current
desktop wallpaper and set it as your login background. The login screen allows you to update your
keyboard language, volume intensity and enable/disable accessibility settings before you log in to your
desktop. It also displays date/time and battery power for laptops. You can also shut down or restart your
system from the login screen.
To learn more about Ubuntu, check the following sites: Getting started with Ubuntu 14.04 at http://files.ubuntu-manual.org/manuals/getting-started-withubuntu/14.04e2/en_US/screen/Getting%20Started%20with%20Ubuntu%2014.04%20-%20Second
Tutorial ? Installing Ubuntu 14.04 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i_4Kh5kE3xA
How to Install Ubuntu Linux on Windows 7 (Dual Boot) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pjzAl6dos
Dual-Boot Ubuntu 14.04 and Windows 8  at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uVcsFhv2Vo
Follow the instruction in Module 4 case, try and/or install Ubuntu on your own machine. Describe your
experience with Ubuntu, any difficulties you encountered when you try and/or install Ubuntu and how
you solved these difficulties. Present screenshots to show your Ubuntu trial and/or installation.
Use information from the modular background readings as well as the given resources. Also, you could
use any good quality resource you can find. Please cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end
of your paper.
Length: 1?3 pages (excluding the title page and reference pages) and double-spaced.
The following items will be assessed in particular:
1. Your ability to consolidate ideas from reading materials and your understanding of the materials.
2. Your ability to write a report with strong argument.
3. Some in-text references to modular background readings.
This question was answered on: Sep 18, 2020
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