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[answered] Module 4 - SLP INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING UBUNTU Understand

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Module 4 - SLP




Understanding the Ubuntu desktop


Initially, you may notice many similarities between Ubuntu and other operating systems, such as


Microsoft Windows or Apple OS X. This is because they are all based on the concept of a graphical user


interface (GUI)?i.e., you use your mouse to navigate the desktop, open applications, move files, and


perform most other tasks. In short, things are visually-oriented. This


SLP is designed to help you become familiar with various applications and menus in Ubuntu so that you


become confident in using the Ubuntu GUI. Unity All GUI-based operating systems use a desktop environment. Desktop environments contain many


features, including (but not limited to): The look and feel of the system The organization of the desktop How the user navigates the desktop Ubuntu uses Unity as the default desktop environment. The Unity desk-top is comprised of the desktop


background and two bars?a horizontal one located at the top of your desktop called the menu bar and


a vertically-oriented bar at the far left called the Launcher.


The Desktop Background


Below the menu bar at the top of the screen is an image covering the entire desktop. This is the default


desktop background, or wallpaper, belonging to the default Ubuntu 14.04 theme known as Ambiance. To


learn more about customizing your desktop (including changing your desktop background).


The Menu Bar The menu bar incorporates common functions used in Ubuntu. The icons on the far-right of the menu


bar are located in an area of the menu bar called the indicator area, or notification area. Each


installation of Ubuntu may contain slightly different types and quantities of icons based on a number of


factors, including the type of hardware and available on-board peripherals upon which the Ubuntu


installation is based. Some programs add an icon to the indicator area automatically during installation.


The most common indicators are: Every application has a menuing system where different actions can be executed in an application


(like File, Edit, View, etc.); the menuing system for an application is appropriately called the application


menu. Instead, it is located to the left area of the menu bar. By default in Unity, the application menu


isn?t on the title bar of the application as is commonly the case in other GUI environments. To show an application?s menu, just move your mouse to the desktop?s menu bar (at the top of the


screen). While your mouse is positioned here, the active application?s menu options will appear in the


desktop?s menu bar, allowing you to use the application?s menuing options. When clicking on the


desktop, the desktop?s menu bar reappears. This capability in Unity to display the application?s menu


only when needed is especially beneficial for netbook and laptop users with limited viewable screen


space. You can disable this feature via Session Indicator ? System Settings ? Appearance. In


the Behavior tab, under Show the menus for a window, select In the window?s title bar.


The Launcher The vertical bar of icons on the left side of the desktop is called the Launcher. The Launcher provides


easy access to applications, mounted devices, and the Trash. All running applications on your system will


place an icon in the Launcher while the application is running. To change the Launcher icon size, go


to Session Indicator ? System Settings ? Appearance, tab Look. The first icon at the top of the Launcher is the Dash, a component of Unity. We will explore the Dash in a


later section of this chapter. By default, other applications appear in the Launcher, including the Files file


manager, LibreOffice, Firefox, any mounted devices, and the Trash, which contains deleted folders and


files, at the bottom of the Launcher.


Holding the Super key, also known as the Windows key (Win key), located between the left Ctrl key and


Alt key, will cause Ubuntu to superimpose a number onto the first ten applications in the Launcher and


also display a screen full of useful shortcuts. You can launch an application with a number n on it by


typing Super+n. If you open more applications than can be shown in the Launcher, the Launcher will ?fold? the


application icons at the bottom of the Launcher. Simply move your mouse to the bottom of the Launcher,


and you?ll see the Launcher icons ?slide? and the folded application icons unfold for easy access.


Running applications


To run an application from the Launcher (or cause an already-running application to appear), just click on


the application?s icon. Applications that are currently running will have one or more triangles on the left


side of the icon indicating the number of application windows open for this application. Running


applications also have a back-lit icon on the Launcher.


The application in the foreground (i.e., the application that is on top of all other open application


windows) is indicated by a single white triangle on the right side of its icon. You can also run an


application through the Dash which will be explored in the upcoming The Dash section.


Adding and removing applications from the Launcher


There are two ways to add an application to the Launcher:


? Open the Dash, find the application you wish to add to the Launcher, and drag its icon to the Launcher.


? Run the application you want to add to the Launcher, right-click on the application?s icon on the


Launcher, and select Lock to Launcher.


To remove an application from the Launcher, right-click on the application?s icon, then select Unlock


from Launcher.


The Dash


The Dash helps you quickly find applications and files on your computer. If you?ve used Windows in the


past, you?ll find the Dash to be similar to the Windows Start menu or the Start Screen in Windows 8.


Apple OS X users will find the Dash similar to Launchpad in the dock. If you?ve used a previous version of


Ubuntu or another GNOME Linux distribution, the Dash serves as a replacement for the various GNOME


2 menus. The Dash allows you to search for information, both locally (installed applications, recent files,


bookmarks, etc.) as well as remotely (Twitter, Google Docs, etc.). To explore the Dash, click on the top-most icon on the Launcher; the icon contains the Ubuntu logo on it.


After clicking the Dash icon, the desktop will be overlaid by a translucent window with a search bar on


top as well as a grouping of recently accessed applications, files, and downloads. Ubuntu also includes


results from popular Web services. The search bar provides dynamic results as you enter your search






Lenses act as specialized search categories in the Dash: searching is accomplished by utilizing one or


more lenses, also known as scopes, and each lens is responsible for providing a category of search


results through the Dash. Search for files and applications with the Dash


The Dash is an extremely powerful tool allowing you to search your computer for applications and files.


Find files/folders


The Dash can help you find names of files or folders. Simply type a portion of the file or folder name. As


you type, results will appear in the Dash. The Files and Folders lens will also assist in finding files or


folders?showing you the most recently accessed files as well as the most recent downloads. You can use


the filter results button in the top-right corner of the Dash to filter results by attributes such as file or


folder modification times, file type (.odt, .pdf, .doc, .txt, etc.), or size.


Find applications


A standard Ubuntu installation comes with many applications. Users can additionally download


thousands of applications from the Ubuntu Software Center. As you collect an arsenal of awesome


applications (and get a bonus point for alliteration!), it may become difficult to remember the name of a


particular application; the Applications lens on the Dash can assist with this search. This lens will


automatically categorize installed applications under ?Recently Used,? ?Installed,? or ?More Suggestions.?


You can also enter the name of an application (or a part of it) into the search bar in the Dash, and the


names of applications matching your search criteria will appear. Even if you don?t remember the name of


the application at all, type a keyword that is relevant to that application, and the Dash will find it. For


example, type music, and the Dash will show you the default music player and any music player you?ve


used. Workspaces


Workspaces are also known as virtual desktops. These separate views of your desktop allow you to group


applications together, and by doing so, help to reduce clutter and improve desktop navigation. For


example, you can open all of your media applications in one workspace, your office suite in another, and


your Web browser in a third workspace. Ubuntu has four workspaces by default.


The workspaces feature is not activated by default in Ubuntu. To activate workspaces, click on Session


Indicator ? System Settings? ? Appearance then click on the Behavior tab and click on the Enable


workspaces box. When this box is checked, you?ll notice that another icon is added to the bottom of the


Launcher that looks like a window pane. This is the workspace switcher.


Switching between workspaces If you?ve activated the workspace switcher as described above, you can switch between workspaces by


clicking on the workspace switcher icon located on the Launcher. This utility allows you to toggle through


the workspaces (whether they contain open applications or not) and choose the one you want to use.


You can also launch the workspace switcher by typing Super+s and choose a workspace by using the


keyboard arrows followed by RET (the Return / Enter key). Switching between open windows


In Ubuntu, there are many ways to switch between open windows:


1. If the window is visible on your screen, click any portion of it to raise it above all other windows.




2. Use Alt+Tab to select the window you wish to work with. Hold down the Alt key, and keep


pressing Tab until the window you?re looking for appears highlighted in the popup window. Then,


release the Alt key, and the application highlighted in the popup will move to the foreground of


your desktop. Or,


3. Click on the corresponding icon on the Launcher by moving your mouse to the left side of the


screen and right-clicking on the application?s icon. If the application has multiple windows open,


double-click on the icon in order to select the desired window. Press Ctrl+Super+D to hide all


windows and display the desktop; the same works to restore all windows.


Moving a window to different workspace


To move a window to a different workspace, verify that the window isn?t maximized. If it is maximized,


click on the right-most button on the left side of the title bar to restore it to its original size. Then rightclick on the window?s title bar and select:


? Move to Workspace Lef, to move the window to the left workspace


? Move to Workspace Right, to move the window to the right workspace


? Move to Workspace Down, to move the window to the bottom workspace


? Move to Another Workspace, and then choose the workspace to where you wish to move the




Note that the options available when moving windows to different workspaces depends on which


workspace contains the window you are moving. If the window exists in the lower-right workspace, you


will not see a Move to Workspace Down because there is no workspace available below the lower-right


quadrant of a four quadrant workspace.


Window always on the top or on visible workspace


At times, you may want to force a window to always be in the foreground so that it can be seen or


monitored while you work with other applications. For example, you may want to browse the Web and, at the same time, view and answer incoming instant message. To keep a window always in the


foreground, right-click on the window?s title bar, then select Always On Top. This window will now be on


the top of all windows opened in the current workspace. If you want to have a window always on the top




of the workspace, right-click on the window?s title bar, then select Always on Visible Workspace. This


window will now be on top of all other windows across all workspaces.


Unity?s Keyboard Shortcuts


When you long-press the Super key (also known as the Win key) for a few seconds, Unity will display a


list of useful keyboard shortcuts, some of which have been mentioned above: Browsing files on your computer


There are two ways to locate files on your computer?search for them or access them directly from their


directory. You can search for a file using the Dash or the Files file manager. You can also use the Dash or


Files file manager to access commonly used directories (such as Documents, Music, Downloads) as well


as the most recently accessed files. Your Home Directory


The Home directory is used to store all of your personal files (rather than system files, such as




In Ubuntu, by default, the contents of your Home directory are accessible for and can be read by other


users who have an account on your PC.


The name of your Home directory matches your login name and is created when your user account is


created. When opening your personal directory, you will see a collection of several directories, including


Desktop (which contains any files that are visible on the desktop), Documents, Downloads, Music,


Pictures, Public, Templates, and Videos. These directories are created automatically during the


installation process. You can add more files and directories as needed.


Files file manager


Just as Microsoft Windows has Windows Explorer and Apple OS X has Finder to browse files and


directories, Ubuntu uses the Files file manager by default.


The Files file manager window


When you select the Files shortcut in the Launcher, click on a directory in the Dash, or double-click a


directory on the desktop, Ubuntu will open the Files file manager. The default window contains the


following features: menu bar The menu bar is located at the top of the screen. The Files menu allows you to modify the


layout of the browser, show, browse and remove bookmarks, open a Help document, open a new


window, connect to a server, or quit. Choosing Enter Location will open the Locations text field where


you can enter any location directly.


title bar The title bar shows the name of the currently selected directory. It also contains


the Close, Minimize, and Maximize buttons.


toolbar The toolbar displays your directory browsing history (using two arrow buttons), your location in


the file system, a search button, and options for your current directory view: On the upper left corner of the toolbar, there are two arrow icons. These are similar to the


?Back? and ?Forward? history functionality in Web browsers. The Files application keeps track of


where you are and allows you to backtrack if necessary. As such, the buttons Previous visited


location and Next visited location allow you to navigate through your directory browsing history. In the middle of the toolbar, you will see a representation of your current directory location. Clicking on the Search icon opens a text field so you can search for a file or directory by name. Clicking on the View items as a grid icon (the default setting) enables you to see the files and


directories as icons. In this view, previews of photos and text files are also displayed. Clicking on the View items as a list icon allows you to see a list of files and directories, along


with their size, type, and date of last modification. You may customize what information is


displayed by right-clicking on either Name, Size, Type, or Modified. This action will display a


checklist of available options. left pane The left pane of the file browser?titled Places?has shortcuts to commonly used directories.


You can also bookmark a directory through the toolbar by choosing Bookmarks ? Bookmark this


Location. Once you have bookmarked the directory, it should appear in the left pane.


Regardless of the directory you are currently browsing, the left pane will always contain the same




right pane The largest pane shows the files and directories within the directory you are currently




To navigate to a directory in Files, click (or double-click) on its icon in the right pane, the left pane, or the




Opening files


A file, in its simplest form, is data. Data can represent a text document, database information, or other


media such as music or videos. To open a file, you can double-click on its icon. Ubuntu will try to find an


appropriate application with which to open the selected file. In some cases, you may wish to open the


file with a different application than the one Ubuntu selected. To select an application, right-click the


icon and select one of the Open With options.


Creating new directories


To create a new directory from within the Files file manager, right-click in the blank area of the right pane


and select New Directory from the popup menu (this action will also work on the desktop). Replace the


default ?Untitled Directory? title with your desired label (e.g., ?Personal Finances?).


You can also create a new directory by pressing Ctrl+Shift+N.


Hidden Files and Directories


If you wish to hide certain directories or files, place a dot (.) in front of the name (e.g., ?.Personal


Finances?). In some cases, it is impossible to hide files and directories without prefixing them with a dot.


You can easily view hidden files by clicking View options ? Show Hidden Files or by pressing Ctrl+H.


Hiding files with a dot (.) is not a security measure?it is simply a way to help you organize your files.


Copying and moving files and directories


You can cut, copy, and paste files or directories in the Files file manager by right-clicking on the item and


selecting the corresponding button from the popup menu. You can also use the keyboard shortcuts


Ctrl+X, Ctrl+C, and Ctrl+V to cut, copy, and paste files and directories, respectively.


Multiple files can be selected by left-clicking in an empty space (i.e., not on a file or directory), holding


the mouse button down, and dragging the cursor across the desired files or directories. This ?click-drag?


action is useful when you are selecting items that are grouped closely together. To select multiple files or directories that are not positioned next to each other, hold down the Ctrl key while clicking on each item


individually. Once the desired files and/or directories are selected, right-click on any of the selected


items to perform an action just like you would for a single item.


When one or more items have been ?copied,? navigate to the desired location, then right-click in an


empty area of the window and select Paste to copy them to the new location. While the copycommand


can be used to make a duplicate of a file or directory in a new location, the cut command can be used to


move files and directories. That is, a copy will be placed in a new location, and the original will be


removed from its current location.


Note that when you ?cut? or ?copy? a file or directory, nothing will happen until you ?paste? it


somewhere. Paste will only affect the most recent item(s) cut or copied.


To move a file or directory, select the item to move, then click Edit ? Cut. Navigate to the desired


location, then click Edit ? Paste. If you click on a file or directory, drag it, then hold down the Alt key and


drop it to your destination directory, a menu will appear asking whether you want to copy, move,


or link the item.


As with the copy command above, you can also perform this action using the right-click menu, and it will


work for multiple files or directories at once. An alternative way to move a file or directory is to click on


the item, and then drag it to the new location.


Using multiple tabs and multiple Files windows


Opening multiple Files file manager windows can be useful for dragging files and directories between


locations. You can also have multiple tabs to browse multiple locations at once.


To open a second window when browsing a directory in Files, select File ? New Window or press Ctrl+N.


This will open a new window, allowing you to drag files and/or directories between two locations. To


open a new tab, click Location options (cog) ? New Tab or press Ctrl+T. A new row will appear above the


space used for browsing your files containing two tabs?both will display the directory you were


originally browsing. You can click these tabs to switch between them to click and drag files or directories


between tabs the same as you would between windows.


When dragging items between Files windows or tabs a small symbol will appear over the mouse cursor


to let you know which action will be performed when you release the mouse button. A plus sign (+)


indicates you are about to copy the item, whereas a small arrow means the item will be moved. The


default action will depend on the directories you are using.


Searching for files and folders on your computer


You can search for files and folders using the Dash or the Files file manager.


Search using the Dash


In the Dash, simply type your search terms in the search bar at the top of the Dash.


Alternatively, you may use the Applications or Files & Folders lenses; here you can use a filter to narrow


down your search. Open the drop-down menu on the right side of the search bar. If you?ve


selected Applications, you will be able to filter by application type. If you?ve chosen Files & Folders, you can filter by a host of options, including Last modified, Type (e.g., Documents), or Size. It is sufficient


to type the first few letters of the file or folder for which you are searching.


Search using Files file manager


In Files file manager, click on the magnifying glass button or press Ctrl+F. This opens the search field


where you can type the name of the file or folder you want to find.


Customizing your desktop


Most customizations can be reached via the Session Indicator and then selecting System Settingsto open


the System Settings application window. The Dash, desktop appearance, themes, wallpapers,


accessibility, and other configuration settings are available here. For more information see Session


options. Appearance


The Look tab


In the Look tab you can change the background, window theme, and Launcher icon size to further


modify the look and feel of your desktop. To begin, open Appearance by either right-clicking on your background and selecting Change Desktop Background or selecting Session Indicator ? System


Settings ? Appearance. Select the Look tab.


Theme The ?Appearance? window will display the current selected background wallpaper and theme.


Themes control the appearance of your windows, buttons, scroll bars, panels, icons, and other parts of


the desktop. The Ambiance theme is used by default, but there are other themes from which you can


choose. Just click once on any of the listed themes to give a new theme a try. The theme will change


your desktop appearance immediately. Desktop background


To change the Background, either select Wallpapers, Pictures Folder, or Colors and Gradientsfrom the


drop-down list. When Wallpapers is selected, you will see Ubuntu?s default selection of backgrounds. To


change the background, simply click the picture you would like to use. You?re not limited to this


selection. To use one of your own pictures, click the + button and navigate to the image you would like to


use. Then click the Open button, and the change will take effect immediately. This image will then be


added to your list of available backgrounds. Selecting Pictures Folder opens your Pictures folder where


you can choose a picture for the background. The Colors and Gradients button allows you to set the


background to a solid or gradient color. Click on the Solid Color button, then the Pick a Color to choose a solid color. The Vertical Gradient and Horizontal Gradient buttons bring up two Pick a Color buttons.


Just choose any two colors you like and see if you have achieved the desired result.


Launcher icon size


At the bottom of the Look tab you find a slider to change the size of icons on the Launcher. You may


choose from a range between 32 and 64 pixels.


The Behavior tab


In the behavior tab you find several options to change the behavior of your desktop.


Auto-hide the Launcher


Switch the Auto-hide the Launcher to either show the Launcher or reveal it when moving the pointer to


the defined hot spot. When turned on, you can choose the reveal location?Left side or Top left corner?


and the reveal sensitivity.


Enable workspaces


By default, workspaces are not enabled. You can enable workspaces by checking this option. Add show


desktop icon to the launcher Check this option if you want to show the desktop icon on the Launcher.


Show the menus for a window


Here you can choose if you want menus to show in the menu bar or in the window?s title bar. You can


restore the behavior settings by clicking the Restore Behavior Settings button.




Ubuntu ha...


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