Question Details

Answered: - Describe ALL the dependent variables for the designated


Describe ALL the dependent variables for the designated experiment:

  • Provide an operational definition
  • Name the units it was measured in

???????????

Identify all the main effects and interactions (if the design is factorial). Make sure you state the main effect for EACH independent variable you named in (5):

  • Provide the statistical statement (t- or F-statement)
  • Explain each statement in plain English

  • 5.???????? Describe ALL the independent variables for the designated experiment:
  • Name each variable
  • List its levels
  • State the statistical test(s) that was/were used to analyze the data
  • If?there?are?more?than?one?independent??variable,?state?the?factorial?design

Identify all the main effects and interactions (if the design is factorial). Make sure you state the main effect for EACH independent variable you named in (5):

  • Provide the statistical statement (t- or F-statement)
  • Explain each statement in plain English

High-Speed Scanning in Human Memory

 

Author(s): Saul Sternberg

 

Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 153, No. 3736 (Aug. 5, 1966), pp. 652-654

 

Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science

 

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1719418

 

Accessed: 16-03-2015 15:00 UTC

 

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References and Notes

 

the typical range of stimulation levels

 

and onvironments of the species; per1. J. H. Bruell, Amer. Zoologist 4, 125 (1964).

 

2. D. S. Falconer, Introduction to Quantitative

 

haps it would be most relevanlt for

 

Genetics (Ronald Press, New YorlQ, 1960).

 

s!tudying

 

evolution of behaviotr.

 

The sec3. G. Lindzey, D. T. Lykken, H. D. Winston, J.

 

Abnormal Social Psychol. 61, 7 (1960); G.

 

ond approach, however, enables sysLindzey, H. D. Winston, M. Manosevitz, J.

 

Com . Physiol. Psychol. 56, 622 (1963).

 

p

 

tematic analysis of the influence of

 

P. L. Broadhurst, in Experimentsin Personvarious environmentsand test situations 4. ality, vol. 1, Psychogeneticsand Psychopharmacology, H. J. Eysenck, Ed. (Routledge and

 

on behavior of the species.

 

Kegan Paul,

 

The existence of intleractions

 

between 5. J. H. Bruell,London, 1960). Behavior, F L.

 

in Roots of

 

Bliss, Ed. (Harper, New York, 1962), p. 48.

 

variables does Inot imply that general

 

6. A longer, more detailed paper describing the

 

statements cannot be made about gecomplete study, including diallel cross and

 

correlation analyses and a discussion of

 

netic, age, or environmentalfactors per

 

specific gamete, treatment, and sex cffects is

 

se. SigniScant main effects may still be

 

in preparation.

 

Psychol. Repts.

 

the primary concern of the investigator 7. N. D. Henderson, Physiol. Psychol. 15, 579

 

(1964); J. Comp.

 

59, 439

 

and may frequlentlyemerge. The valu!e

 

(1965).

 

8. Among previously undisturbed mice, mode of

 

of such results increases considerably,

 

inheritance interacts with sex, and dominance

 

appears within sexes. This finding is consisthowever, if it is known that the effect

 

ant with the results of J. H. Bruell: "Mode of

 

occurs over a wide range of conditions

 

inheritance of emotional defecation in mice,'>

 

unpublished.

 

and if the investigator is aware of spe9. N. D. Henderson, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.

 

cific interactions.

 

57, 284 (1964); ibid. 59, 439 (1965).

 

10. G. W. Meier, ibid. 58, 418

 

NORMAN HENDERSON11. Research supported by NSF (1964).GB 1863. I

 

D.

 

grant

 

Department of Psychology,

 

thanlQR. L. Collins for helpful comments.

 

Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

 

4 May 1966

 

"

 


 

was pulled, a feedback light informed

 

the subject whether his response had

 

been correct. The trial ended with his

 

attempt to recall the series in order. For,

 

every value of s, positive and negative

 

responses were required with equal frequency. Each digit in the series occurred as a test stimulus with probability (2s)- and each of the remain1,

 

ing digits occurred with probability

 


 

L2(10-s)]-l

 


 

Each subject had 24 practice trials

 

and 144 test trials. Feedback and payoffs were designed to encourage subjects to respond as rapidly as possible

 

while maintaining a low error-rate.

 

The eight subjects whose data are presented pulled the wrong lever on 1.3

 

percent of the test trials (5). Recall

 

was imperfect on 1.4 percent of the

 

trials. The low error-rates justify the

 

assumption that on a typical trial the

 

series of symbols in memory was the

 

same as the series of symbols presented.

 

Results are shown in Fig. 1. Linear

 

regression accounts for 99.4 percent of

 

High-Speed Scanning in Human Memory

 

the variance of the overall mean reAbstract. When sabjects judge whether a test symbol is contained in a short sponse-latencies (6). The slope of the

 

nqemorized seqaence of synqbols, their mean reaction-time increases linearly fitted line is 37.9 + 3.8 msec per symwith the length of the sequence. The linearity and slope of the function imply bol (7); its zero intercept is 397.2 +

 

the existence of an internal serial-comparison process whose average rate is

 

19.3 msec. Lines fitted separatelyto the

 

between 25 and 30 symbols per second

 

mean latencies of positive and negative

 

responses differ in slope by 9.6 + 2.3

 

How is symbolic information re- the information is retrieved. Of pal:- msec per symbol. The difference is

 

trieved from recent memory? The study ticular interest in the study of retrieval attributable primarily to the fact that

 

of short-term tn-emory(1) has revealed is the effect of the number of elements for s = 1, positive responses were 50.0

 

some of the determinantsof failures to in memory on the response latency. + 20.1 msec faster than negative reremember, but has provided little in- The subject first memorizes a short sponses. Lines fitted to the data for

 

sight into error-free performance and series of symbols. He is then shown a

 

2 sc

 

6 differ in slope by an inthe retrieval processes that underlie it. test stimulus, and is required to decide significant 3.1 + 3.2 msec per symbol.

 

One reason for the neglect of .retrieval whether or not it is one of the symbols

 

The latency of a response depends,

 

mechanisms may be th.e implicit as- in memory. If the subject decides in part, on the relative frequency with

 

sumption that a short time after several affirmativelyhe pulls one lever, making which it is required (8). For this reaitems have been memorized, they can a positive response; otherwise he makes son the frequenciles of positive and

 

be immediately and simultaneously a negative response by pulling the other negative resplonsesand, more generally,

 

available for expression in recall or in lever. ][nthis paradigm it is the identity the resp!onse entropy (8), wlere held

 

other responses, rather than having to of the symbols in the series, but not constant for all values of s in experibe retrieved first. Tn another vocabu- their order, that is relevant to the ment 1. However, the test-stimulus

 

lary (2), this is to assume the equiva- binary response. The response latency entropy (predictability) was permitted

 

lence of the "span of immediate mem- is defined as the time from the onset to co-vary with s.

 

ory" (the number of items that can be of the test stimulus to the occurrence

 

Both response and test-stimulus enrecalled without error) and the "mo- of the response.

 

tropies were controlled in experiment

 

mentary capacity of consciousness"

 

Because they are well learned and 2, in which the retrieval process was

 

(the number of items immediately highly discriminable, the ten digits studied by an alternative method simiavailable). The experiments reported were used as stimuli. On each trial of

 

lar to that used in more conventional

 

h.ere (3) show that the assumption is experiment 1, the subject (4) saw a ran- experiments on choice-reaction time.

 

dom series of from one to six different In experiment 1, the set of symbols

 

unwarranted.

 

Underlying the paradigm of these digits displayed singly at a fixed locus

 

associated with the positive respolnse

 

experiments is the supposition that if for 1.2 seconds eache The length, s, of

 

changed from trial to trial. In conthe selection of a response requires the the series varied at random from trial trast to this varied-set procedure, a

 

use of information that is in memory, to trial. There followed a 2.0-second fixed-set procedure was used in experithe latency of the response will reveal delay, a warning signal, and then the ment 2. In each of three parts of the

 

something about the process by which test digit. As soon as one of the levers session, a set of digits for which the

 

652

 


 

SCIENCE, VOL. 153

 


 

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Y

 


 

rs

 


 

X

 


 

positive response was required (the

 

positive set ) was announced to the

 

subject (4); there followed 60 practice

 

trials and 120 test trials based on this

 

set. The suibjec;tknew that on cach

 

trial any of the ten digits could appear as the test stimulus, and that for

 

all the digits not in the positive set

 

(the negative set) the negative response

 

was required. Each subject worked

 

with nonintersecting positive sets of

 

size s = 1, 2, and 4, whose composition was varied from subject to subject.

 

Stimulus and response entropies were

 

both held constant while s was varied,

 

by means of specially constructedpopulations of test stimuli. Let xl, Y1,Y2,zls

 

. . ., z and wl, . . ., W3 represerlt

 

the ten digits. Their relative frequencies in the popullation were xl, 4/15;

 

each y, 2/15; each z, 1/15; and each

 

w, 1/15. The three sequences of test

 

stimuli presented to a subje!ctwere obtained by random permutation of

 

the fixed population and assignment

 

of xl, the Yi, or the zi to the positive

 

response. Thus, the population of test

 

stimuli, their sequential properties, and

 

the relative frequency of positive responses (4/15) were the same in all

 

conditions (9).

 

A trial consisted of a warning signal,

 

the test digit, the subject'sresponse, and

 

a feedback light. Between a response

 

and the next test digit, 3.7 seconds

 

elapsed. As in experiment 1, feedback

 

and payoffs were designed to encourage

 

speed without sacrificeof accuracy. The

 

six subjects whose data are presented

 

pulled the wrong lever on 1.0 percent

 

of the test trials (5).

 

The results, shown in Fig. 2, closely

 

resemble those of experiment 1. A

 

positive set in experiment 2 apparently

 

played the same role as a series of

 

symibols presented in experiment 1,

 

both correspondingto a set of symbols

 

stored in memory and used in the

 

selection of a response. As in experiment 1, linear regression accounts for

 

99.4 percent of the variance of the

 

overall mean response-latencies (6).

 

The slope of 38.3 + 6.1 msec per

 

symbol is indistinguishable from that

 

in experiment 1; the zero intercept

 

is 369.4 + 10.1 msec. In experiment 2, the relation between latencies

 

of positive and negative responses when

 

s - 1 is not exceptional. Lines fitted

 

separately to latencies of the two kinds

 

of response differ in slope by an insignificant 1.6 + 3.0 msec per symbol.

 

The linearity of the latency functions

 


 

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2

 

3

 

S

 

NUMBER OF SYMBOLS IN MEMORY,

 


 

Fig. 1. Relation between resplonse latency

 

and the number of symbols in memory, s,

 

in experiment 1. Mean latencies, over

 

eight sulbjects,of positive responses (filled

 

circles) and negative responses (open

 

circles). About 95 observations per point.

 

For each s, overall mean (heavy bar) and

 

estimates of + ff are indicated (6). Solid

 

lline was fitted by least squares to overall

 

means. Upper bound for parallel process

 

(broken curve).

 


 

suggests that the time between test

 

stimulus and response is occupied, in

 

part, by a serial-comparison(scanning)

 

process. An internal representation of

 

the test stimulus is compared successively to the symbols in memory, each

 

comparison resulting in either a match

 

or a mismatch. The time from tlhe beginning of one comparison to the beginning of the next (the comparison time)

 

has th!esame mean value for successive

 

comparisons. A positive response is

 


 

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4

 

5

 

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3

 

SIZE OF POSITIVE SET, S

 


 

Fig. 2. Relation between response latency

 

and the size of the positive set, s, in experiment 2. Mean latencies, over six subjects, of positive responses (filled circles)

 

and negative responses ( open circles) .

 

About 200 (positive) or 500 (negative)

 

observations per point. For each s, overall

 


 

of

 

mean (heavy bar) and esltimates + ff

 

are indicated (6). Solid line was fitted

 

by least squaresto overall means. Upper

 

bound for parallelprocess(brokencurve).

 


 

made if there has been a match, and a

 

negative response otherwise.

 

On trials requiring negative responses, s comparisons must be made.

 

If positive responses were initiated as

 

soon as a matichhad occurred (as in a

 

self-terminatingsearch), the mean number of comparisons on positive trials

 

would be (s + 1)/2 rather than s. The

 

latency function for positive responses

 

would then have half the slope of the

 

function for negative responses. The

 

equality of the observed slopes shows,

 

instead, that the scanning process is

 

exhaustive: even when a match has

 

occurred, scanning continues through

 

the entire series. This may appear

 

surprising, as it suggests nonoptimality. One can, however, conceive

 

of systems in which a self-terminating

 

search would be inefficient. For example, if the determination of whether

 

or not a match had occurred were a

 

slow operation that could not occur

 

concurrently with scanning, self-termination would entail a long interruption in the scan after each comparison.

 

On the basis of the exhaustive-scanning theory, the zero intercept of the

 

latency function is interpreted as the

 

sum of the times taken by motor response, formation of the test-stimulus

 

representation, and other unknown

 

processes whose durations are independent of the number of symbols in

 

memory. The slope of the latency

 

function represents thenean comparison-time. The two experiments, then,

 

provide a measure of the speed of

 

purely internal events, independent of

 

the times taken by sensory and motor

 

operations.The average rate of between

 

25 and 30 symbols per second is about

 

four times as high as the maximum rate

 

of "subvocal speech" when the words

 

are the names of digits (11). This difference suggests that the silent rehearsal

 

(12) reported by subjects in both experiments should probably not be identified with high-speed scanning, but

 

should be thought of as a separateprocess whose function is to maintain the

 

memory that is to be scanned.

 

In view of the substantial agreement

 

in results of the two experiments, one

 

diSerence in procedure merits particular emphasis. A response in experiment 1 was the first and only response

 

based on a particularseries, made about

 

three seconds after the series had been

 

presented. In contrast, the positive set

 

on which a response was based in experiment 2 had been used on an average of 120 previous trials. Evidently,

 


 

5 AUGUST 1966

 


 

653

 


 

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tive set

 


 

(n s)

 


 

had no ef3ect on the

 


 

either practice in scanning a particular series nor lengthening of the time

 

it has been stored in-memory need increase the rate at which it is scanned.

 

In accounting for human performance in other tasks that appear to involve multiple comparisons, theorists

 

have occasionally proposed that the

 

comparisons are carried out in parallel

 

rather than serially (13, 14). (This

 

perhaps corresponds to the assumption

 

mentioned earlier that the momentary

 

capacity of consciousness is several

 

items rather than only one. Are the

 

present data inconsistent with such a

 

proposal? Parallel comparisons that begin and also end simultaneously(14) are

 

excluded because the mean latency has

 

been shown to increase with s. A process irl which multiple comparisons begin simultaneously is more difficult to

 

excltlde if the comparison times are in?

 

dependent, their distribution has nonzero variance, and the response is initiated when the slowest comparison

 

ends. A linear increase in mean latency

 

cannot alone be taken as conclusive

 

earidenceagainst such a process. The

 

magnitude of the latency increase that

 

would result from a parallel process is

 

bounded ahove, however (15); it is

 

possible to apply the bound to these

 

data (]6). This was done for the negative responsesin both experiments,with

 

the results shcown the broken curves

 

by

 

in Figs. 1 and 2. Evidently, the increase

 

in response latency with s is too great

 

to be attributed to a parallel process

 

with independent comparison times

 

(17) .

 

Other experiments provide added

 

support for the scanning theory (16).

 

Two of the findings are noted here: (i)

 

variation in Ithe size, n, of the nega-

 


 

.09 (experiment 2), suggesting true intersubject differences in slope; the population

 

distribution of slopes has an estimated standard deviation of 8.0 msec per symbol

 

W. R. Garner, Uncertaintyand Structure as

 

Psychological Concepts (Wiley, New York,

 

1962) .

 

Bell Telephone Laboratories,

 

9. A result of this procedure is that other

 

factors in choice-reaction time were also conMurray Hill, New Jersey

 

trolled : stimulus discriminability (10);

 

information transmitted (8); and information reReferences and Notes

 

duced, M. I. Posner, Psychol. Rel^. 71, 491

 

(1964); P. M. Fitts and I. Biederman, J. Exp.

 

1. A. W. Melton, J. Verbal Learning Ve7*ba1

 

Psychol. 69, 408 (1965).

 

Behavior 2, 1 ( 1963 .

 

)

 

10. R. N. Shepard and J. J Chang, J. Exp.

 

2. G. A. Miller, Psychology, the Science of

 

Psychol. 65, 94 ( 1963); M. Stone, PsychoMental Life ( Harper and Row, New York,

 

metrika 25, 251 ( 1960) .

 

1962), p. 47.

 

11 T. K. Landauer, Percept. Mot. Skills 15, 646

 

3. These experiments were first reported by S.

 

(1962).

 

Sternberg, "Retrieval from recent memory: 12. D. E. Broadbent, Perception and CommllSome reaction-timeexperimentsand a search

 

nication (Pergamon, New York, 1958), p. 225.

 

theory," paper presented at a meeting of the

 

13. L. S. Christie and R. D. Luce, Bull. Math.

 

PsychonomicSociety, BrynMawr,August 1963.

 

Biophys. 18, 89 (1956); A. Rapoport, Be4. Subjects were undergraduatesat the UniverhalnioralSci. 4, 299 ( 1959) .

 

sity of Pennsylvania.

 

14 U. Neisser, Amer. J. Psychol. 76, 376 (1963);

 

5. These trials were, excluded from the analysis.

 

Sci. Amer. 210, 94 ( 1964) .

 

Three other subjects in experiment1 (twol in

 

15. H. O. Hartley and H. A. David, Ann. Math.

 

experiment2) were reiected because they exStat. 25, 85 ( 1954) .

 

ceeded an error criterion. Their latency data, 16. S. Sternberg, in preparation

 

which are not presented, resembled those of

 

17.- Exponentially distributed parallel comparisons

 

the other subjects.

 

(13) and other interesting theories of multi^

 

6. For both experiments the data subjected to

 

ple comparisons (lE) lead to a latency funcanalysis of variance were, for each subjecty

 

tion that is approximately linear in log s.

 

the mean latency for each value of s. So

 

Deviations of the overall means from such a

 

that inferences might be drawn about tlle

 

function are significant (P < .03) in both

 

population of subjects, individual diiderences

 

experiments.

 

in mean and in linear-regressionslope were 18. A. T. Welford, Ergonomics 3, 189 (1960).

 

treated as "random eidects." Where quan- 19. I. Pollack, J. Verbal Learning Verbal Betities are stated in the form a + bJ b is an

 

havior 2, 159 ( 1963); D. E. Broadbent and

 

estimate of the standard error of a. Such

 

M. Gregory,

 

estimates were usually calculated by usirlg 20. Supported in Nature 193, 1315 (1962).

 

part by NSF grant GB-1172 to

 

variance components derived from the analthe University of Pennsylvania. I thank D. L.

 

ysis of variance.

 

Scarborough for assistance, and J. A. Deutsch,

 

7. The analyses oXf

 

variancefor both experitnents

 

R. Gnanadesikan, and C. L. Mallows for

 

provided a means of testing the significance

 

helpful discussions.

 

of

 


 

corrected; and (v) until the response

 

to one stimulus is completed the next

 

stimulus cannot be viewed.

 

8.

 

SAULSTERNBERC

 


 

diiderencesamong individual slopes. Significance levels are .07 (experiment 1) and

 


 

25 May 1966

 


 

I

 


 

Anxiety Levels in Dreams: Relation to Changes in

 

Plasma Free Fatty Acids

 


 

Abstract. Blood samples for determination of plasma free fatty acids were

 

obtained throughout the night by means of an indwelling catheter. The first

 

sample was drawn at the onset of rapid eye movements ancl cz second after 15

 

minutes of these movements. Subjects were then awakened and asked to relate

 

their dreams; a third sample was drawn 15 to 25 minutes later. Anxiety scores

 

derived from 20 dreams of nine subjects had significant positive correlations

 

with changes in f ree f atty acids occurring during REM sleep. No statistically

 

significant relation was found between anxiety and the changes in free fatty

 

acids occurring from the time just before awakening to ]5 to 25 minutes

 

mean latency, indicating that stimulus later. Presumably, anxiety in dreams triggers the release of catecholamines into

 

confusahility (10, 18) cannot account the circulation, and these catecholamines mobilize proportional amounts of

 

for the results of experiments 1 and 2; free fatty acids from body fat.

 

(ii) variation in the size of a responseirrelearant

 

memory load had no ef3

 

ect

 

A previous study of the relation of

 

Nine paid volunteer male subjects,

 

on the latency function, implying that emotions and blood lipids during the ranging in ages from 19 to 25, were

 

the increase in latency reflects the du- waking state revealed a significantposi- asked to sleep overnight in a dream

 

ration of retrieval and not merely the tive correlation between low levels of laboratory, arranged to appear as a

 

exigencies of retention.

 

arousal of anxiety, as determined from hospital room. Subjects slept 1 or 2

 

The generality of the high-speed a 5-minute period of free associative nights in the laboratcory

 

but were not

 

scanning process has yet to be deter- speech (1), and concentrations of free given preliminary periods in which to

 

mined, but there are several features fatty acids (FFA) in plasma. No essen- become accustomed to sleeping in this

 

of experiments 1 and 2 that should be tial correlation was found in this study room. They were told that we were intaken into account in any comparison between hostility and concentrations of arestigating

 

sleep, dreams, and changes

 

with other binary classification tasks FFA. The positive correlation between in body chemistry. Subjects were in(14, 19): (i) at least one of the classes anxiety levels and FFA raised the ques- structed not to eat after their evening

 

is small; (ii) class members are as- tion whether a similar relation might meal at 6:00 p.m. and to report to the

 

signed arbitrarily; (iii ) relatively little occur while subjects are in a dream laboratory at 11:00 p.m. At !this time

 

practice is provided; (iv) high ac- state. Our study was undertaken to ex- a venipuncture was performed in the

 

curacy is required and errors cannot be plore such a possibility.

 

left antecubitalvein with a No. 18 thin654

 


 

SCIENCE, VOL. 153

 


 

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DATE ANSWERED

Sep 18, 2020

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