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Answered: - Running head: LDR 800 CODE OF ETHICS DESIGN PAPER LDR 800

Design a code of Ethics Paper ?Listed below some requirements. I have also attached and example of how the paper should be formatted and written. ?

General Requirements:

Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

  • This assignment requires support from current, scholarly resources.
  • This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
  • Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.


Use the information from your reading and research to design a research-based code of ethics that can be generalized to a variety of organizations. Present your research-based code of ethics in a paper of 1,000-1,250 words. Include the following in your paper:

  1. General overview of organizational ethics policies
  2. Rationale for the design of your code of ethics
  3. The written code of ethics
  4. Discussion?of?how?the?code?you?designed?relates?to?your?personal?ethical?beliefs;?compare?and?contrast?your?code?with?the?codes?of?ethics?of?at?least?two?organizations




LDR 800 Code of Ethics Design Paper


Grand Canyon University












LDR 800 Code of Ethics Design Paper


Ethical decisions are placed before businesses and organizations, as well as their


employees or members on a daily basis. The pressure to perform and create higher profit


margins drives the company employee to push the limits of ethics (Sekerka, 2009). To quell


ethical issues, organizations need to disseminate information concerning ethical standards


throughout the organization (Sekerka, 2009). A common way that companies try to accomplish


the task of increased moral behavior is to create and subsequently disseminate a Code of Ethics


(Johnson, 2012). The primary objective of a code of ethics is to elevate mindfulness of ethical


issues, hopefully preventing unethical activities (Sekerka, 2009). When an organization


possesses formal or informal ethics policy, ethical behavior increases (Hegarty & Sims, 1979).


These unambiguous sets of rules will result in a reduction of ethically undermining activities and


provide a path to revitalization when moral violations occur (Tjosvold, Snell, & Fang Su, 2009).


Although companies or organizations have set codes of ethics, which have hopefully


been released to all employees or members, it is still an individual choice to follow the moral


code. Making ethical decisions is a behavioral phenomenon and can be strengthened or


weakened by the surrounding environment, however, a clearly stated ethical code can actively


guide ethical behavior (Hegarty & Sims, 1979). ?The fit between the ethical values of the person


and the organization can be assessed by matching the levels of individual moral development


with the ethical climate? (Ambrose, Arnaud, & Schminke, 2008, p. 325). Therefore, in the


following pages, we will substantiate influences on the design of ethical codes. We will also



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:49 AM


Comment [1]: Using analysis and synthesis


of what has been said in your own words with


in an in-text citation to give credit for theory


where it belongs will demonstrate your


application of your knowledge more


effectively then reporting a series of direct





give rationale for creation of a personal ethical code, as well as submit a theoretical written


policy. A discussion will follow relating the submitted policy to our personal beliefs and will


compare other organizational ethical codes.



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:49 AM


Comment [2]: Nicely framed.









Organizational Ethics


The ethical principles of an organization or company are somewhat representative of the


leadership. The leaders use influence to build healthy ethical environments by creating a system


of shared values, introducing codes of ethics, and working toward continued organizational


moral development (Johnson, 2012). Leaders may act as the ethics officers and enforcers


(Johnson, 2012); however, having managers and subordinates engaged in the process is of


particular importance (Messikomer & Cirka, 2010) and endorses the practicality of provisions


(Schwartz, 2002). The focus, of course, is on codes of ethics and how they come to fruition.



Dr. Toni Greif 5/29/14 8:47 AM


Comment [3]: Please review your APA


manual on how to cite the same author(s)


within the same paragraph correctly.



Many organizations create and adopt codes of ethics to show legitimacy of the organization


(Long & Driscoll, 2008). Others establish ethical codes to set standards for employees, avoid


legal complications and foster public image (Schwartz, 2002). However, in development of


ethical codes, many different principles are considered.


Core values used to write ethical codes include: enablement and aspirational


(Messikomer & Cirka, 2010, p. 60); character, integrity and moral value (Griggs, 2009, p. 40);


trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and citizenship (Schwartz, 2002, p. 2930). Still other principles include: utilitarianism, justice as fairness, communitarianism, and


altruism (Johnson, 2012). Some indicators of highly ethical organizations are: integrity, justice,


focus on process, structural reinforcement, and lack of tolerance for destructive behaviors


(Johnson, 2012, p. 323). These values and principles set the stage for a morally courageous code


of ethics. Some research has focused on individual morals as a basis for organizational ethics.



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:52 AM


Comment [4]: Page numbers are only


required for direct quotes.



The employee?s moral cognitive development, in accordance with Kohlberg, affects the


organizational ethical climate, and attitudes of subordinates during the work cycle (Ambrose et


al., 2008). However, it could be inferred that during moral development, individuals will learn



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:53 AM


Comment [5]: In scholarly writing, you


want to avoid pontificating or preachy. If you


build a case based on facts and theories, your


argument will speak for itself without evoking


bias and sounding dictatorial.









and understand at least some of the previously discussed principles and values. The use of these


values should be apparent as we move to discuss our self-devised organizational code of ethics.




During the course of researching codes of ethics, we believe that Schwartz (2009)


provided an excellent representation of an outline for corporate codes of ethics:


1. Inclusion ? the six moral standard we noted previously are to be included


in the code as values, principles, or provisions


2. Compliance ? code content needs to be consistent with moral standards


3. Stakeholders ? outline obligations to stakeholders


4. Prioritization ? the six moral standards should take priority over other




5. Procedural ? indication of possible disciplinary consequences


6. Rationale ? Sufficient rationale for each provision


7. Comprehensible ? Use common language that is easily read and


understood by all employees. Examples may be necessary


8. Achievable ? Behavioral expectations should be realistically achievable



We believe this to be an excellent model, containing a number of good principles to help


formulate the basis of our particular code of ethics. It is understood that codes seek to minimize


risk of damage to company reputation and use legalities as compliance standards (Long &


Driscoll, 2008), as does ours. However, firmness of ethical standards must be evident as to


ensure employees knowledge and willingness to comply, creating a more congruent working


environment (Ambrose et al., 2008). There is also a desire to build a culture of open



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:53 AM


Comment [6]: Who is we? Isn?t this your


paper? For scholarly papers, you want to write


in the third person as if you were a newspaper


reporter stating facts that are supported by intext citations to support your position.


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:55 AM


Comment [7]: You are way over the word


count which asked for: Present your code of


ethics in a paper of 1,000-1,250 words.


It is often harder to write a concise


shorter paper, which is why the


assignments use word counts.









communication so that subordinates do not feel threatened or fear retaliation if they report


misconduct (Tjosvold et al., 2009). Finally, we perceive that humans are mostly decent, and


there are moments of lapse of judgment, desperation, and the inability to discern the moral right


and wrong (Griggs, 2009). Employees should understand that they would be treated fairly under


the code of ethics. Using these principles as foundation, creation of an ethical climate is the


ultimate goal.


Written Code of Ethics


Code of Ethics




All who are employed or are members of this organization shall be thoroughly committed


to serving the customer. The member must respect and observe the code of ethics and conduct


him or herself accordingly, while using the highest moral judgment when facing decisions of


ethical nature.


Each member must have the highest respect for other members and non-members and


must treat each individual politely and in a manner of fairness. Above all, it is imperative that


we as individuals or an organization create a situation that causes harm, or cause harm as


individuals to no individuals or other organizations.




1. Always be ourselves


a. Do not emulate other organizations for purposes of characterization


b. All organizational implementations must reflect the character and ethics of our


organization and the membership


c. We are unique, as such; employee actions will reflect the uniqueness of our


organization. If actions are contrary to the ethical code, the consequences will


reflect the action.


2. Honesty


a. The organization shall be honest in its dealings


b. We shall not mislead any individual or organization as to our purpose or product


c. Membership will only purport the true characteristics of the organization and its




3. Responsible


a. The organization and its membership will take responsibility as needed for any


and all violations of this code.


b. The organization and its membership will take responsibility as needed for any


action that results in a poor light being cast upon the organization


c. Any member who is unwilling to correct any wrong that has been done, will be


subject to immediate dismissal


d. Communication of ethics violations to supervisors or HR is a responsible act and


will be treated as such, and nothing else









4. Loyal


a. As a user of services, this organization will be loyal to our suppliers, as long as it


makes good business sense


b. This organization will be loyal to our consumers, understanding that we will do


our best to meet their needs, in as much as we can provide the goods or service


that is required


c. The organization will be loyal to its membership in as much as it is reciprocated


by the membership. This reciprocation will be established based upon the nature


of any violation of the ethical code


5. Helpful


a. The organization and its membership will do whatever we can to help those less




b. The organization and its membership will strive to help those within our own


organization who are in need of help, either in the work environment or off the




6. Communication


a. Organizational membership, no matter what level, are encouraged to


communicate about ethical standards and practices


b. Possible changes to the code of ethics are to be done in a representative manner


and discussed in open forum before being adopted


7. Do no harm


a. The organization and its membership will not cause physical or emotional harm to


other organizations or individuals


b. The organization and its membership will not purposefully create an environment


which is of hostile nature, either within the organization or in the professional




8. Punitive determinations


a. Violations of the ethical code will result in consequences, to be determined by a


council of leadership and subordinate individuals


b. Consequences shall be commensurate with the violation and shall be enacted in a


timely manner


c. All organizational consequences shall be secondary to local law, if those assets


are involved and necessary





The code of ethics that is presented above (Code A) is grounded in the previously cited


research. We will discuss the scientific justifications for its conception. Also, there is a mirror


component to the authors? personal ethical standards and themes that are established in the above


code of ethics, that we will examine. Finally, we will provide a compare and contrast discussion









of the authors? code of ethics outlined in this paper, to those of two principled and real




The framework established by Schwartz (2002) outlined the basic moral standards and


dimensions of content to be included in the code of ethics. Though we did not concede all of his


points the concepts are congruent. The aspect of communication helps to strengthen the model.


When members are encouraged and openly discuss ethical issues, it leads to member


empowerment and confidence, as well as facilitating effective resolution if ethical situations


arise (Tjosvold et al., 2009). This concept can also help foster co-worker relationships, which


has a positive ethical impact, allowing more honest discussion with each other, thereby


enhancing the ethical climate of the organization (Tjosvold et al., 2009). A stronger compatible


between personnel and organization will lead to increased job satisfaction and longevity, which


will also aid in strengthening of the ethical atmosphere (Ambrose et al., 2008).


Code A partially mimics the author?s personal ethics (Code B). The principles brought


forth in Code B include: Honesty, Trustworthiness, Responsibility, Loyalty, and Help to others.


The most important concept in both codes is to always be you. If the author or a


corporation/organization looses sight of this principle, it is doubtful that harmony will exist, as it


is hard to prosper when an individual or organization has no understanding of identity.


Code A has its identity, however, it is for a fictional company. Although the author is of


the belief that it has the potential to serve as a foundation for an organizational code of ethics in a


real organization. The concept is solid, however, additions and subtractions could be relevant to


any organization that may employ its use. In order to provide a better discussion of validity, we


will compare and contrast Code A with two codes of ethics that have been established and are


currently organizational provisions.









The code of ethics of the National Education Association (NEA) and the code of ethics of


the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) have been selected for comparison. As we


consider the preamble of each code of ethics the NEA has a very strong statement about ethical


conduct: The educator recognizes the magnitude of the responsibility inherent in the teaching


process. ?The desire for the respect and confidence of one?s colleagues, of students, of parents,


and of the members of the community provides the incentive to attain and maintain the highest


possible degree of ethical conduct? ("National Education Association Code of Ethics," 2010).


Code A makes a similar statement that ?The member must respect and observe the code of ethics


and conduct him or herself accordingly, while using the highest moral judgment when facing


decisions of ethical nature.? Whereas the NATA code of ethics preamble, offers: ?ethical


behavior should be followed in the athletic training profession? ("NATA Code of Ethics," 2005).


In the body of the work, both the NATA and the NEA codes of ethics become very specific to


their respective professions. In the first three principles of the NATA code of ethics, it discusses


respect and rights of consumers, being understand and comply with laws and regulation of


governance for the profession, and promotion of high standards ("NATA Code of Ethics," 2005).


In comparison, the NEA code of ethics, in Principle 1, discusses the commitment to the student


and outlines many different violations of ethical code ("NEA Code of Ethics," 2010). In


contrast, Code A, discusses ethical values including responsibility, honesty, and loyalty.


Commitment to the profession is mentioned in Principle 2 of the NEA Code of Ethics (2010) and


Principle 4 of the NATA Code of Ethics (2005). Code A does mention the organization in


Principle 3, under Responsibility.


Overall, Code A has some of the same structure as the Codes of Ethics from the NATA


and the NEA. The codes of the NEA and NATA have undergone several revisions over their









lifetimes, with many organization members submitting their input. Code A has not as of yet had


that luxury, but overall we feel as though it is grounded in researched principles and could be


used as a basic code for a start up organization, only to be reformatted to fit the ethical principles


of the organizational leaders and subordinates.




In the previous discussion we have discussed the ethical legitimacy of an organization or


company and one of the ways which they enhance the ethical atmosphere, a code of ethics. We


discussed several reasons for a code of ethics. A code of ethics can help to produce an ethically


positive organizational identity, which can increase member motivation, and the desire for the


member to remain affiliated with the organization (Verbos, Gerard, Forshey, Harding, & Miller,


2007). The desire of the member to be affiliated with an organization is one goal of the code of


ethics. However, it is the belief of the author that the ultimate goal is to create an ethical


atmosphere so that members and employees enjoy going to work each day, and the


communication is such that there is not animosity between co-workers when ethical situations


are discussed.


The hypothetical code of ethics (Code A), which was discussed earlier, is a model to


provide some membership satisfaction with the work environment. We compared Code A, with


two other codes and found some similarities, and some differences. Overall, the author was


pleased with the framework of Code A.


Some codes of ethics serve as a fa?ade, a framework to minimize risk and damage to the


reputation of the organization (Long & Driscoll, 2008). Companies that put forth a code for this


purpose have moral challenges. Companies that create and implement codes of ethics can still be


judged as unethical companies (Schwartz, 2002). We would hope that all companies strive to









live by the code of ethics they have produced. However, a code of ethics does not guarantee that


membership will act in an ethical fashion (Schwartz, 2002). If companies are investing the time


and money to create, implement, and administer ethical codes, then hopefully, they will be













Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical


climate: The influence of Person-Organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business


Ethics, 77, 323-333.


Griggs, F. E. (2009, January). New look at the code of ethics. Journal of Professional Issues in


Engineering Education and Practice, 135(1), 40-46.


Hegarty, W. H., & Sims, H. P. (1979). Organizational philosophy, policies, and objectives


related to unethical decision behavior: a laboratory experiment. Journal of Applied



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:55 AM


Comment [8]: Missing edition number.


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:55 AM


Deleted: issues



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:55 AM


Deleted: philosopy



Psychology, 64(3), 331-338.


Johnson, C. E. (2012). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow


(4th ed.). [Adobe Digital Editions]. Retrieved from GCU


Long, B. S., & Driscoll, C. (2008). Codes of ethics and pursuit of organizational legitimacy:


Theoretical and empirical contributions. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 173-189.


Messikomer, C. M., & Cirka, C. C. (2010). Constructing a code of ethics: An experiential case of


a national professional organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 95, 55-71.


NATA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved from


National Education Association Code of Ethics. (2010). Retrieved from


Schwartz, M. S. (2002). A code of ethics for corporate code of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics,


41, 27-43.


Sekerka, L. E. (2009). Organizational ethics education and training: a review of best practices


and the application. International Journal of Training and Development, 13(2), 77-95.



Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Ethical


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Challenges


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Leadership


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Light


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Shadow


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Deleted: Fourth


Dr. Toni Greif 4/15/14 7:56 AM


Comment [9]: You want to include the


volume, edition and page numbers for these


articles as well as the doi, so the reader can


easily find them on their own.









Tjosvold, D., Snell, R., & Fang Su, S. (2009). Codes of conduct for open-minded discussion and


resolution of ethical issues in China. Journal of International Business Ethics, 2(2), 3-20.


Verbos, A. K., Gerard, J. A., Forshey, P. R., Harding, C. S., & Miller, J. S. (2007). The positive


ethical organization: Enacting a living code of ethics and ethical organizational identity.


Journal of Business Ethics, 76, 17-33.




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