Question Details

Answered: - Design a plan for the procedures to be used in a survey st

Design a plan for the procedures to be used in a survey study. Review the checklist in Table 8.1 after you write the section to determine if all the components have been addressed. Table 8.1 is on page 202?

I dedicate this book to Karen Drumm Creswell. She is the inspiration for my writing and my life. Because of her?as wife,


supporter, and detailed and careful editor?I am able to work long hours, keep the home fires burning, and be a productive


researcher and book writer. Thank you, Karen, from the bottom of my heart for being there for me through all of the editions of


this book.





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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Creswell, John W.


Research design : qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches / John W. Creswell. ? 4th ed.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 978-1-4522-2609-5 (cloth) ?


ISBN 978-1-4522-2610-1 (pbk.)


1. Social sciences?Research?Methodology


2. Social sciences?Statistical methods. I. Title.


H62.C6963 2014








This book is printed on acid-free paper.



13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1



Brief Contents


Analytic Contents of Research Techniques






About the Author


Part I. Preliminary Considerations


1. The Selection of a Research Approach


2. Review of the Literature


3. The Use of Theory


4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations


Part II. Designing Research


5. The Introduction


6. The Purpose Statement


7. Research Questions and Hypotheses


8. Quantitative Methods


9. Qualitative Methods


10. Mixed Methods Procedures






Author Index


Subject Index



Detailed Contents


Analytic Contents of Research Techniques










Outline of Chapters




About the Author


Part I. Preliminary Considerations


1. The Selection of a Research Approach


The Three Approaches to Research


Three Components Involved in an Approach


Philosophical Worldviews


The Postpositivist Worldview


The Constructivist Worldview


The Transformative Worldview


The Pragmatic Worldview


Research Designs


Quantitative Designs


Qualitative Designs


Mixed Methods Designs


Research Methods


Research Approaches as Worldviews, Designs, and Methods


Criteria for Selecting a Research Approach


The Research Problem and Questions


Personal Experiences






Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


2. Review of the Literature



The Research Topic


The Literature Review


The Use of the Literature


Design Techniques


Steps in Conducting a Literature Review


Searching Computerized Databases


A Priority for Selecting Literature Material


A Literature Map of the Research


Abstracting Studies


Example 2.1. Literature Review Abstract in a Quantitative Study


Example 2.2. Literature Review Abstract in a Study Advancing a Typology


Style Manuals


The Definition of Terms


Example 2.3. Terms Defined in an Independent Variables Section


Example 2.4. Terms Defined in a Mixed Methods Dissertation


A Quantitative or Mixed Methods Literature Review




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


3. The Use of Theory


Quantitative Theory Use


Variables in Quantitative Research


Definition of a Theory in Quantitative Research


Forms of Theories in Quantitative Research


Placement of Quantitative Theories


Writing a Quantitative Theoretical Perspective


Example 3.1. A Quantitative Theory Section


Qualitative Theory Use


Variation in Theory Use in Qualitative Research


Locating the Theory in Qualitative Research


Example 3.2. A Theory Early in a Qualitative Study


Example 3.3. A Theory at the End of a Qualitative Study


Mixed Methods Theory Use


Social Science Theory Use


Transformative Paradigm Theory Use


Example 3.4. Theory in a Transformative Mixed Methods Study




Writing Exercises



Additional Readings


4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations


Writing the Proposal


Arguments Presented in a Proposal


Format for a Qualitative Proposal


Example 4.1. A Qualitative Constructivist/Interpretivist Format


Example 4.2. A Qualitative Transformative Format


Format for a Quantitative Proposal


Example 4.3. A Quantitative Format


Format for a Mixed Methods Proposal


Example 4.4. A Mixed Methods Format


Designing the Sections of a Proposal


Writing Ideas


Writing as Thinking


The Habit of Writing


Readability of the Manuscript


Example 4.5. An Illustration of the Hook-and-Eye Technique


Voice, Tense, and ?Fat?


Ethical Issues to Anticipate


Prior to Beginning the Study


Beginning the Study


Collecting the Data


Analyzing the Data


Reporting, Sharing, and Storing Data




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


Part II. Designing Research


5. The Introduction


The Importance of Introductions


An Abstract for a Study


Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Introductions


A Model for an Introduction


An Illustration


The Research Problem


Studies Addressing the Problem


Deficiencies in Past Literature



Example 5.1. Deficiencies in the Literature?Needed Studies


Example 5.2. Deficiencies in the Literature?Few Studies


Significance of a Study for Audiences


Example 5.3. Significance of the Study Stated in an Introduction to a Quantitative Study




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


6. The Purpose Statement


Significance and Meaning of a Purpose Statement


A Qualitative Purpose Statement


Example 6.1. A Purpose Statement in a Qualitative Phenomenology Study


Example 6.2. A Purpose Statement in a Case Study


Example 6.3. A Purpose Statement in an Ethnography


Example 6.4. A Purpose Statement in a Grounded Theory Study


A Quantitative Purpose Statement


Example 6.5. A Purpose Statement in a Published Survey Study


Example 6.6. A Purpose Statement in a Dissertation Survey Study


Example 6.7. A Purpose Statement in an Experimental Study


A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement


Example 6.8. A Convergent Mixed Methods Purpose Statement


Example 6.9. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement


Example 6.10. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


7. Research Questions and Hypotheses


Qualitative Research Questions


Example 7.1. A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography


Example 7.2. Qualitative Central Questions From a Case Study


Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses


Example 7.3. A Null Hypothesis


Example 7.4. Directional Hypotheses


Example 7.5. Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses


Example 7.6. Standard Use of Language in Hypotheses


A Model for Descriptive Questions and Hypotheses


Example 7.7. Descriptive and Inferential Questions


Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses



Example 7.8. Hypotheses and Research Questions in a Mixed Methods Study


Example 7.9. A Mixed Methods Question Written Using Methods and Content Language




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


8. Quantitative Methods


Defining Surveys and Experiments


Components of a Survey Method Plan


The Survey Design


The Population and Sample




Variables in the Study


Data Analysis and Interpretation


Example 8.1. A Survey Method Section


Components of an Experimental Method Plan






Instrumentation and Materials


Experimental Procedures


Example 8.2. Pre-Experimental Designs


Example 8.3. Quasi-experimental Designs


Example 8.4. True Experimental Designs


Example 8.5. Single-Subject Designs


Threats to Validity


The Procedure


Data Analysis


Interpreting Results


Example 8.6. An Experimental Method Section




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


9. Qualitative Methods


The Components of Qualitative Methods


The Characteristics of Qualitative Research


Qualitative Designs


The Researcher?s Role


Data Collection Procedures


Data Recording Procedures



Data Analysis and Interpretation


Validity and Reliability


Writing the Qualitative Report


Example 9.1. Qualitative Procedures




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings


10. Mixed Methods Procedures


Components of Mixed Methods Procedures


Describe Mixed Methods Research


Types of Mixed Methods Designs


Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design


Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design


Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design


Several Advanced Mixed Methods Designs


Mixed Methods Notation in the Figures


Factors Important in Choosing a Mixed Methods Design


Choice Based on Outcomes Expected


Choice Based on How the Data Will Be Used Together (or Integrated)


Choice Based on the Timing of the Data Collection


Choice Based on the Emphasis Placed on Each Database


Choice Based on Type of Design Most Suited for a Field


Choice Based on a Single Researcher or Team


Examples of Mixed Methods Procedures


Example 10.1. A Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design


Example 10.2. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design


Example 10.3. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design


Example 10.4. A Transformative Design




Writing Exercises


Additional Readings






Author Index


Subject Index



Analytic Contents of Research Techniques


Chapter 1. The Selection of a Research Approach


? Determining your research approach


? Identifying a worldview with which you are most comfortable


? Defining the three types of research approaches


? Using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods designs and methods


Chapter 2. Review of the Literature


? Assessing whether your topic is researchable


? Using steps in conducting a literature review


? Using computerized databases available for reviewing the literature


? Developing a priority for types of literature to review


? Designing a literature map


? Writing a good abstract of a research study


? Using important elements of a style manual


? Defining terms


? Employing a model for writing a literature review


Chapter 3. The Use of Theory


? Identifying variables in a quantitative study


? Defining the nature of a quantitative theory


? Using a script to write a theoretical perspective into a quantitative study


? Considering the types of theories used in qualitative research


? Placing theories in a qualitative study


? Placing a theoretical lens into a mixed methods study


Chapter 4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations


? Assessing the structure of a proposal for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies


? Using writing strategies for drafting a proposal


? Developing a habit of writing



? Constructing umbrella thoughts, big thoughts, little thoughts, and attention thoughts in writing


? Developing writing consistency through the hook-and-eye technique


? Using principles of writing good prose


? Anticipating ethical issues in many phases of the research process


Chapter 5. The Introduction


? Writing an abstract for a study


? Exploring differences among quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods introductions


? Using the deficiency model for writing an introduction


? Designing a good narrative hook


? Writing about the research problem


? Summarizing the literature about a research problem


? Pointing out deficiencies in past literature


? Considering audiences that may profit from your study


Chapter 6. The Purpose Statement


? Using a script for writing a qualitative purpose statement


? Considering how the script would change depending on your qualitative design


? Using a script for writing a quantitative purpose statement


? Considering how the script would change depending on your quantitative design


? Using a script for writing a mixed methods purpose statement


? Considering how the script would change depending on your mixed methods design


Chapter 7. Research Questions and Hypotheses


? Writing a script for a qualitative central question


? Considering how this script would change depending on the qualitative design


? Writing a script for quantitative research questions and hypotheses


? Considering how this script would change depending on the quantitative design and the different


types of hypotheses


? Using a model for descriptive and inferential quantitative questions and hypotheses


? Writing scripts for different forms of research questions for a mixed methods study


Chapter 8. Quantitative Methods



? Using a checklist for survey research to form topic sections of a survey procedure


? Employing steps in analyzing data for a survey procedure


? Writing a complete survey methods discussion


? Using a checklist for experimental research to form sections for an experimental procedure


? Identifying the type of experimental procedure that best fits your proposed study


? Drawing a diagram of experimental procedures


? Identifying the potential internal validity and external validity threats to your proposed study


Chapter 9. Qualitative Methods


? Using a checklist for qualitative research to form topic sections of a procedure


? Stating the basic characteristics of qualitative research


? Determining how reflexivity will be included in a proposed study


? Weighing the different types of data collected in qualitative research


? Employing steps in the qualitative data analysis process


? Establishing validity in qualitative research


Chapter 10. Mixed Methods Procedures


? Stating a definition and the characteristics of mixed methods research


? Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design


? Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design


? Employing an exploratory sequential mixed methods design


? Using one of the advanced mixed methods designs


? Choosing which design is best for a mixed methods study








This book advances a framework, a process, and compositional approaches for designing a proposal


for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research in the human and social sciences. The


ascendency of qualitative research, the emergence of mixed methods approaches, and the continuing


use of the traditional forms of quantitative designs have created a need for this book?s unique


comparison of the three approaches to inquiry. This comparison begins with preliminary


consideration of philosophical assumptions for all three approaches, a review of the literature, an


assessment of the use of theory in research approaches, and reflections about the importance of


writing and ethics in scholarly inquiry. The book then addresses the key elements of the process of


research: writing an introduction, stating a purpose for the study, identifying research questions and


hypotheses, and advancing methods and procedures for data collection and analysis. At each step in


this process, the reader is taken through qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.





This book is intended for students and faculty who seek assistance in preparing a plan or proposal for


a scholarly journal article, dissertation, or thesis. At a broader level, the book may be useful as both a


reference book and a textbook for courses in research methods. To best take advantage of the design


features in this book, the reader needs a basic familiarity with qualitative and quantitative research;


however, terms will be explained and defined and recommended strategies advanced for those


needing introductory assistance in the design process. Highlighted terms in the text and a glossary of


the terms at the back of the book provide a working language for understanding research. This book


also is intended for a broad audience in the social and health sciences. Readers? comments since the


first edition indicate that individuals using the book come from many disciplines and fields. I hope


that researchers in fields such as marketing, management, criminal justice, communication studies,


psychology, sociology, K?12 education, higher and postsecondary education, nursing, health sciences,


urban studies, family research, and other areas in the social and health sciences will find the fourth


edition useful.





In each chapter, I share examples drawn from varied disciplines. These examples are drawn from


books, journal articles, dissertation proposals, and dissertations. Though my primary specialization is


in educational psychology and more broadly the social and health sciences, the illustrations are


intended to be inclusive of many fields. They reflect issues in social justice and examples of studies


with marginalized individuals in our society as well as the traditional samples and populations


studied by social and health researchers. Inclusiveness also extends to methodological pluralism in


research today, and the discussion incorporates alternative philosophical ideas, diverse modes of


inquiry, and numerous procedures.


This book is not a detailed method text; instead, I highlight the essential features of research design.


I have attempted to reduce research to its essential core ideas so that researchers can plan a thorough


and thoughtful study. The coverage of research designs is limited to frequently used forms: surveys


and experiments in quantitative research; narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory,


ethnography, and case studies in qualitative research; and convergent, explanatory sequential, and


exploratory sequential designs in mixed methods research. Although students preparing a dissertation


proposal should find this book helpful, topics related to the politics of presenting and negotiating a


study with review committees are addressed thoroughly in other texts.


Consistent with accepted conventions of scholarly writing, I have tried to eliminate any words or


examples that convey a discriminatory (e.g., sexist or ethnic) orientation. Examples were selected to


provide a full range of gender and cultural orientations. Throughout the text I do not favor either


qualitative or quantitative research. Indeed, I have intentionally altered the order of qualitative and


quantitative examples throughout the book. Readers should also note that in the longer examples cited


in this book, many references are made to other writings. Only the reference to the work I use in the


illustration will be cited, not the entire list of references embedded within any particular example. As


with my earlier editions, I have maintained features to enhance the readability and understandability


of the material: bullets to emphasize key points, numbered points to stress key steps in a process, and


longer examples of complete passages with my annotations to highlight key research ideas that are


being conveyed by the authors.


In this fourth edition of the book, new features have been added in response to developments in


research and reader feedback:


? Throughout the book, I have cited updated editions of research methods books to emerge since the


last edition.


? To reflect current thinking about worldviews, I have expanded the participatory worldview,


discussed in the last edition, to include a much broader worldview perspective?the transformative


worldview?based on recent scholarship (Mertens, 2009, 2010).


? There is updated information included in this edition on the Publication Manual of the American


Psychological Association (American Psychology Association [APA], 2010).


? This edition includes a considerable expansion of discussion of ethical issues. A new table now


illustrates examples of ethical issues and how they might be addressed in the research process. The


ethical issues in this edition have been reorganized under the categories of issues prior to conducting



the study; beginning the study; collecting data; analyzing data; and reporting, sharing, and storing data.


? The quantitative methods chapter now includes more information about examining the statistical


significance of results, as well as the practical results conveyed through effect sizes and confidence


intervals. New references are added to cite recent literature on quantitative methods.


? The qualitative methods chapter reflects my recent examination of the topic as found in Creswell


(2013). These changes include an update on the characteristics of qualitative research, the types of


designs available to the researcher, an extended discussion about the role of the researcher and


reflexivity, and an improved section about the steps in qualitative data analysis and interpretation.


? The final chapter on mixed methods procedures has been extensively revised to reflect changes in


recent years and in the writing about the design and conduct of this form of research in Creswell and


Plano Clark (2011) and other writers. As compared with earlier editions, this chapter is more


focused on writing a mixed methods section into the methods part of a proposal. It now considers upto-date thinking about the criteria researchers use to determine what mixed methods design to employ.


It revisits the designs and now structures that organization into basic and more advanced designs.


Further, the basic designs are discussed in some detail, including their characteristics, data collection


and analysis procedures, their writing formats, and the challenges one might expect to find with the


design. Current diagrams of the designs are also included, as well as recent citations to the mixed


methods literature.


? Like all of my editions, this one includes in many chapters a delineation of research tips on


different topics that have helped me advise students and faculty in research methods during the past


40 years.


? This edition also includes a companion website at with a


complete PowerPoint slide presentation ready to use in the classroom, as well as sample activities


and end-of-chapter checklists.





This book is divided into two parts. Part I consist of steps that researchers need to consider before


they develop their proposals or plans for research. Part II discusses the various sections used to


develop a scholarly research proposal for a thesis, dissertation, or research report.



Part I. Preliminary Considerations


This part of the book discusses preparing for the design of a scholarly study. It contains Chapters 1


through 4.


Chapter 1. The Selection of a Research Approach


In this chapter, I begin by defining quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. I then


discuss how philosophy, designs, and methods intersect when one uses one of these approaches. I


review different philosophical stances; advanced types of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed


methods designs; and then discuss the methods associated with each design. I also consider the


factors that go into the choice of an approach to research. Thus, this chapter should help proposal


developers decide whether a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods approach is suitable for their


proposed studies.


Chapter 2. Review of the Literature


It is important to extensively review the literature on your topic before you design your proposal.


Thus, you need to begin with a researchable topic and then explore the literature using the steps


advanced in this chapter. This calls for setting a priority for reviewing the literature, drawing a visual


map of studies that relate to your topic, writing good abstracts, employing skills learned about using


style manuals, and defining key terms. This chapter should help proposal developers thoughtfully


consider relevant literature on their topics and start compiling and writing literature reviews for




Chapter 3. The Use of Theory


Theories serve different purposes in the three approaches inquiry. In quantitative research, they


provide a proposed explanation for the relationship among variables being tested by the investigator.


In qualitative research, they may often serve as a lens for the inquiry or they may be generated during


the study. In mixed methods studies, researchers employ them in many ways, including those


associated with quantitative and qualitative approaches. This chapter helps proposal developers


consider and plan how theory might be incorporated into their studies.


Chapter 4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations


It is helpful to have an overall outline of the topics to be included in a proposal before you begin


writing. Thus, this chapter begins with different outlines for writing proposals. The outlines can be


used as models depending on whether your proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed


methods. Then I convey several ideas about the actual writing of the proposal, such as developing a


habit of writing, and grammar ideas that have been helpful to m...


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