Question Details

Answered: - Design a plan for the procedures to be used in a survey st


Design a plan for the procedures to be used in a survey study. Review the checklist in Table 8.1 after you write the section to determine if all the components have been addressed. Table 8.1 is on page 202


I dedicate this book to Karen Drumm Creswell. She is the inspiration for my writing and my life. Because of her?as wife,

 

supporter, and detailed and careful editor?I am able to work long hours, keep the home fires burning, and be a productive

 

researcher and book writer. Thank you, Karen, from the bottom of my heart for being there for me through all of the editions of

 

this book.

 


 

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Creswell, John W.

 

Research design : qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches / John W. Creswell. ? 4th ed.

 

p. cm.

 

Includes bibliographical references and index.

 

ISBN 978-1-4522-2609-5 (cloth) ?

 

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1. Social sciences?Research?Methodology

 

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Brief Contents

 

Analytic Contents of Research Techniques

 

Preface

 

Acknowledgments

 

About the Author

 

Part I. Preliminary Considerations

 

1. The Selection of a Research Approach

 

2. Review of the Literature

 

3. The Use of Theory

 

4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

 

Part II. Designing Research

 

5. The Introduction

 

6. The Purpose Statement

 

7. Research Questions and Hypotheses

 

8. Quantitative Methods

 

9. Qualitative Methods

 

10. Mixed Methods Procedures

 

Glossary

 

References

 

Author Index

 

Subject Index

 


 

Detailed Contents

 

Analytic Contents of Research Techniques

 

Preface

 

Purpose

 

Audience

 

Format

 

Outline of Chapters

 

Acknowledgments

 

About the Author

 

Part I. Preliminary Considerations

 

1. The Selection of a Research Approach

 

The Three Approaches to Research

 

Three Components Involved in an Approach

 

Philosophical Worldviews

 

The Postpositivist Worldview

 

The Constructivist Worldview

 

The Transformative Worldview

 

The Pragmatic Worldview

 

Research Designs

 

Quantitative Designs

 

Qualitative Designs

 

Mixed Methods Designs

 

Research Methods

 

Research Approaches as Worldviews, Designs, and Methods

 

Criteria for Selecting a Research Approach

 

The Research Problem and Questions

 

Personal Experiences

 

Audience

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

2. Review of the Literature

 


 

The Research Topic

 

The Literature Review

 

The Use of the Literature

 

Design Techniques

 

Steps in Conducting a Literature Review

 

Searching Computerized Databases

 

A Priority for Selecting Literature Material

 

A Literature Map of the Research

 

Abstracting Studies

 

Example 2.1. Literature Review Abstract in a Quantitative Study

 

Example 2.2. Literature Review Abstract in a Study Advancing a Typology

 

Style Manuals

 

The Definition of Terms

 

Example 2.3. Terms Defined in an Independent Variables Section

 

Example 2.4. Terms Defined in a Mixed Methods Dissertation

 

A Quantitative or Mixed Methods Literature Review

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

3. The Use of Theory

 

Quantitative Theory Use

 

Variables in Quantitative Research

 

Definition of a Theory in Quantitative Research

 

Forms of Theories in Quantitative Research

 

Placement of Quantitative Theories

 

Writing a Quantitative Theoretical Perspective

 

Example 3.1. A Quantitative Theory Section

 

Qualitative Theory Use

 

Variation in Theory Use in Qualitative Research

 

Locating the Theory in Qualitative Research

 

Example 3.2. A Theory Early in a Qualitative Study

 

Example 3.3. A Theory at the End of a Qualitative Study

 

Mixed Methods Theory Use

 

Social Science Theory Use

 

Transformative Paradigm Theory Use

 

Example 3.4. Theory in a Transformative Mixed Methods Study

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 


 

Additional Readings

 

4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

 

Writing the Proposal

 

Arguments Presented in a Proposal

 

Format for a Qualitative Proposal

 

Example 4.1. A Qualitative Constructivist/Interpretivist Format

 

Example 4.2. A Qualitative Transformative Format

 

Format for a Quantitative Proposal

 

Example 4.3. A Quantitative Format

 

Format for a Mixed Methods Proposal

 

Example 4.4. A Mixed Methods Format

 

Designing the Sections of a Proposal

 

Writing Ideas

 

Writing as Thinking

 

The Habit of Writing

 

Readability of the Manuscript

 

Example 4.5. An Illustration of the Hook-and-Eye Technique

 

Voice, Tense, and ?Fat?

 

Ethical Issues to Anticipate

 

Prior to Beginning the Study

 

Beginning the Study

 

Collecting the Data

 

Analyzing the Data

 

Reporting, Sharing, and Storing Data

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

Part II. Designing Research

 

5. The Introduction

 

The Importance of Introductions

 

An Abstract for a Study

 

Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Introductions

 

A Model for an Introduction

 

An Illustration

 

The Research Problem

 

Studies Addressing the Problem

 

Deficiencies in Past Literature

 


 

Example 5.1. Deficiencies in the Literature?Needed Studies

 

Example 5.2. Deficiencies in the Literature?Few Studies

 

Significance of a Study for Audiences

 

Example 5.3. Significance of the Study Stated in an Introduction to a Quantitative Study

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

6. The Purpose Statement

 

Significance and Meaning of a Purpose Statement

 

A Qualitative Purpose Statement

 

Example 6.1. A Purpose Statement in a Qualitative Phenomenology Study

 

Example 6.2. A Purpose Statement in a Case Study

 

Example 6.3. A Purpose Statement in an Ethnography

 

Example 6.4. A Purpose Statement in a Grounded Theory Study

 

A Quantitative Purpose Statement

 

Example 6.5. A Purpose Statement in a Published Survey Study

 

Example 6.6. A Purpose Statement in a Dissertation Survey Study

 

Example 6.7. A Purpose Statement in an Experimental Study

 

A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement

 

Example 6.8. A Convergent Mixed Methods Purpose Statement

 

Example 6.9. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement

 

Example 6.10. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

7. Research Questions and Hypotheses

 

Qualitative Research Questions

 

Example 7.1. A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography

 

Example 7.2. Qualitative Central Questions From a Case Study

 

Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses

 

Example 7.3. A Null Hypothesis

 

Example 7.4. Directional Hypotheses

 

Example 7.5. Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses

 

Example 7.6. Standard Use of Language in Hypotheses

 

A Model for Descriptive Questions and Hypotheses

 

Example 7.7. Descriptive and Inferential Questions

 

Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses

 


 

Example 7.8. Hypotheses and Research Questions in a Mixed Methods Study

 

Example 7.9. A Mixed Methods Question Written Using Methods and Content Language

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

8. Quantitative Methods

 

Defining Surveys and Experiments

 

Components of a Survey Method Plan

 

The Survey Design

 

The Population and Sample

 

Instrumentation

 

Variables in the Study

 

Data Analysis and Interpretation

 

Example 8.1. A Survey Method Section

 

Components of an Experimental Method Plan

 

Participants

 

Variables

 

Instrumentation and Materials

 

Experimental Procedures

 

Example 8.2. Pre-Experimental Designs

 

Example 8.3. Quasi-experimental Designs

 

Example 8.4. True Experimental Designs

 

Example 8.5. Single-Subject Designs

 

Threats to Validity

 

The Procedure

 

Data Analysis

 

Interpreting Results

 

Example 8.6. An Experimental Method Section

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

9. Qualitative Methods

 

The Components of Qualitative Methods

 

The Characteristics of Qualitative Research

 

Qualitative Designs

 

The Researcher?s Role

 

Data Collection Procedures

 

Data Recording Procedures

 


 

Data Analysis and Interpretation

 

Validity and Reliability

 

Writing the Qualitative Report

 

Example 9.1. Qualitative Procedures

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

10. Mixed Methods Procedures

 

Components of Mixed Methods Procedures

 

Describe Mixed Methods Research

 

Types of Mixed Methods Designs

 

Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design

 

Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design

 

Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design

 

Several Advanced Mixed Methods Designs

 

Mixed Methods Notation in the Figures

 

Factors Important in Choosing a Mixed Methods Design

 

Choice Based on Outcomes Expected

 

Choice Based on How the Data Will Be Used Together (or Integrated)

 

Choice Based on the Timing of the Data Collection

 

Choice Based on the Emphasis Placed on Each Database

 

Choice Based on Type of Design Most Suited for a Field

 

Choice Based on a Single Researcher or Team

 

Examples of Mixed Methods Procedures

 

Example 10.1. A Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design

 

Example 10.2. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design

 

Example 10.3. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design

 

Example 10.4. A Transformative Design

 

Summary

 

Writing Exercises

 

Additional Readings

 

Glossary

 

References

 

Author Index

 

Subject Index

 


 

Analytic Contents of Research Techniques

 

Chapter 1. The Selection of a Research Approach

 

? Determining your research approach

 

? Identifying a worldview with which you are most comfortable

 

? Defining the three types of research approaches

 

? Using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods designs and methods

 

Chapter 2. Review of the Literature

 

? Assessing whether your topic is researchable

 

? Using steps in conducting a literature review

 

? Using computerized databases available for reviewing the literature

 

? Developing a priority for types of literature to review

 

? Designing a literature map

 

? Writing a good abstract of a research study

 

? Using important elements of a style manual

 

? Defining terms

 

? Employing a model for writing a literature review

 

Chapter 3. The Use of Theory

 

? Identifying variables in a quantitative study

 

? Defining the nature of a quantitative theory

 

? Using a script to write a theoretical perspective into a quantitative study

 

? Considering the types of theories used in qualitative research

 

? Placing theories in a qualitative study

 

? Placing a theoretical lens into a mixed methods study

 

Chapter 4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

 

? Assessing the structure of a proposal for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies

 

? Using writing strategies for drafting a proposal

 

? Developing a habit of writing

 


 

? Constructing umbrella thoughts, big thoughts, little thoughts, and attention thoughts in writing

 

? Developing writing consistency through the hook-and-eye technique

 

? Using principles of writing good prose

 

? Anticipating ethical issues in many phases of the research process

 

Chapter 5. The Introduction

 

? Writing an abstract for a study

 

? Exploring differences among quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods introductions

 

? Using the deficiency model for writing an introduction

 

? Designing a good narrative hook

 

? Writing about the research problem

 

? Summarizing the literature about a research problem

 

? Pointing out deficiencies in past literature

 

? Considering audiences that may profit from your study

 

Chapter 6. The Purpose Statement

 

? Using a script for writing a qualitative purpose statement

 

? Considering how the script would change depending on your qualitative design

 

? Using a script for writing a quantitative purpose statement

 

? Considering how the script would change depending on your quantitative design

 

? Using a script for writing a mixed methods purpose statement

 

? Considering how the script would change depending on your mixed methods design

 

Chapter 7. Research Questions and Hypotheses

 

? Writing a script for a qualitative central question

 

? Considering how this script would change depending on the qualitative design

 

? Writing a script for quantitative research questions and hypotheses

 

? Considering how this script would change depending on the quantitative design and the different

 

types of hypotheses

 

? Using a model for descriptive and inferential quantitative questions and hypotheses

 

? Writing scripts for different forms of research questions for a mixed methods study

 

Chapter 8. Quantitative Methods

 


 

? Using a checklist for survey research to form topic sections of a survey procedure

 

? Employing steps in analyzing data for a survey procedure

 

? Writing a complete survey methods discussion

 

? Using a checklist for experimental research to form sections for an experimental procedure

 

? Identifying the type of experimental procedure that best fits your proposed study

 

? Drawing a diagram of experimental procedures

 

? Identifying the potential internal validity and external validity threats to your proposed study

 

Chapter 9. Qualitative Methods

 

? Using a checklist for qualitative research to form topic sections of a procedure

 

? Stating the basic characteristics of qualitative research

 

? Determining how reflexivity will be included in a proposed study

 

? Weighing the different types of data collected in qualitative research

 

? Employing steps in the qualitative data analysis process

 

? Establishing validity in qualitative research

 

Chapter 10. Mixed Methods Procedures

 

? Stating a definition and the characteristics of mixed methods research

 

? Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design

 

? Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design

 

? Employing an exploratory sequential mixed methods design

 

? Using one of the advanced mixed methods designs

 

? Choosing which design is best for a mixed methods study

 


 

Preface

 


 

PURPOSE

 

This book advances a framework, a process, and compositional approaches for designing a proposal

 

for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research in the human and social sciences. The

 

ascendency of qualitative research, the emergence of mixed methods approaches, and the continuing

 

use of the traditional forms of quantitative designs have created a need for this book?s unique

 

comparison of the three approaches to inquiry. This comparison begins with preliminary

 

consideration of philosophical assumptions for all three approaches, a review of the literature, an

 

assessment of the use of theory in research approaches, and reflections about the importance of

 

writing and ethics in scholarly inquiry. The book then addresses the key elements of the process of

 

research: writing an introduction, stating a purpose for the study, identifying research questions and

 

hypotheses, and advancing methods and procedures for data collection and analysis. At each step in

 

this process, the reader is taken through qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.

 


 

AUDIENCE

 

This book is intended for students and faculty who seek assistance in preparing a plan or proposal for

 

a scholarly journal article, dissertation, or thesis. At a broader level, the book may be useful as both a

 

reference book and a textbook for courses in research methods. To best take advantage of the design

 

features in this book, the reader needs a basic familiarity with qualitative and quantitative research;

 

however, terms will be explained and defined and recommended strategies advanced for those

 

needing introductory assistance in the design process. Highlighted terms in the text and a glossary of

 

the terms at the back of the book provide a working language for understanding research. This book

 

also is intended for a broad audience in the social and health sciences. Readers? comments since the

 

first edition indicate that individuals using the book come from many disciplines and fields. I hope

 

that researchers in fields such as marketing, management, criminal justice, communication studies,

 

psychology, sociology, K?12 education, higher and postsecondary education, nursing, health sciences,

 

urban studies, family research, and other areas in the social and health sciences will find the fourth

 

edition useful.

 


 

FORMAT

 

In each chapter, I share examples drawn from varied disciplines. These examples are drawn from

 

books, journal articles, dissertation proposals, and dissertations. Though my primary specialization is

 

in educational psychology and more broadly the social and health sciences, the illustrations are

 

intended to be inclusive of many fields. They reflect issues in social justice and examples of studies

 

with marginalized individuals in our society as well as the traditional samples and populations

 

studied by social and health researchers. Inclusiveness also extends to methodological pluralism in

 

research today, and the discussion incorporates alternative philosophical ideas, diverse modes of

 

inquiry, and numerous procedures.

 

This book is not a detailed method text; instead, I highlight the essential features of research design.

 

I have attempted to reduce research to its essential core ideas so that researchers can plan a thorough

 

and thoughtful study. The coverage of research designs is limited to frequently used forms: surveys

 

and experiments in quantitative research; narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory,

 

ethnography, and case studies in qualitative research; and convergent, explanatory sequential, and

 

exploratory sequential designs in mixed methods research. Although students preparing a dissertation

 

proposal should find this book helpful, topics related to the politics of presenting and negotiating a

 

study with review committees are addressed thoroughly in other texts.

 

Consistent with accepted conventions of scholarly writing, I have tried to eliminate any words or

 

examples that convey a discriminatory (e.g., sexist or ethnic) orientation. Examples were selected to

 

provide a full range of gender and cultural orientations. Throughout the text I do not favor either

 

qualitative or quantitative research. Indeed, I have intentionally altered the order of qualitative and

 

quantitative examples throughout the book. Readers should also note that in the longer examples cited

 

in this book, many references are made to other writings. Only the reference to the work I use in the

 

illustration will be cited, not the entire list of references embedded within any particular example. As

 

with my earlier editions, I have maintained features to enhance the readability and understandability

 

of the material: bullets to emphasize key points, numbered points to stress key steps in a process, and

 

longer examples of complete passages with my annotations to highlight key research ideas that are

 

being conveyed by the authors.

 

In this fourth edition of the book, new features have been added in response to developments in

 

research and reader feedback:

 

? Throughout the book, I have cited updated editions of research methods books to emerge since the

 

last edition.

 

? To reflect current thinking about worldviews, I have expanded the participatory worldview,

 

discussed in the last edition, to include a much broader worldview perspective?the transformative

 

worldview?based on recent scholarship (Mertens, 2009, 2010).

 

? There is updated information included in this edition on the Publication Manual of the American

 

Psychological Association (American Psychology Association [APA], 2010).

 

? This edition includes a considerable expansion of discussion of ethical issues. A new table now

 

illustrates examples of ethical issues and how they might be addressed in the research process. The

 

ethical issues in this edition have been reorganized under the categories of issues prior to conducting

 


 

the study; beginning the study; collecting data; analyzing data; and reporting, sharing, and storing data.

 

? The quantitative methods chapter now includes more information about examining the statistical

 

significance of results, as well as the practical results conveyed through effect sizes and confidence

 

intervals. New references are added to cite recent literature on quantitative methods.

 

? The qualitative methods chapter reflects my recent examination of the topic as found in Creswell

 

(2013). These changes include an update on the characteristics of qualitative research, the types of

 

designs available to the researcher, an extended discussion about the role of the researcher and

 

reflexivity, and an improved section about the steps in qualitative data analysis and interpretation.

 

? The final chapter on mixed methods procedures has been extensively revised to reflect changes in

 

recent years and in the writing about the design and conduct of this form of research in Creswell and

 

Plano Clark (2011) and other writers. As compared with earlier editions, this chapter is more

 

focused on writing a mixed methods section into the methods part of a proposal. It now considers upto-date thinking about the criteria researchers use to determine what mixed methods design to employ.

 

It revisits the designs and now structures that organization into basic and more advanced designs.

 

Further, the basic designs are discussed in some detail, including their characteristics, data collection

 

and analysis procedures, their writing formats, and the challenges one might expect to find with the

 

design. Current diagrams of the designs are also included, as well as recent citations to the mixed

 

methods literature.

 

? Like all of my editions, this one includes in many chapters a delineation of research tips on

 

different topics that have helped me advise students and faculty in research methods during the past

 

40 years.

 

? This edition also includes a companion website at www.sagepub.com/creswellrd4e with a

 

complete PowerPoint slide presentation ready to use in the classroom, as well as sample activities

 

and end-of-chapter checklists.

 


 

OUTLINE OF CHAPTERS

 

This book is divided into two parts. Part I consist of steps that researchers need to consider before

 

they develop their proposals or plans for research. Part II discusses the various sections used to

 

develop a scholarly research proposal for a thesis, dissertation, or research report.

 


 

Part I. Preliminary Considerations

 

This part of the book discusses preparing for the design of a scholarly study. It contains Chapters 1

 

through 4.

 

Chapter 1. The Selection of a Research Approach

 

In this chapter, I begin by defining quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. I then

 

discuss how philosophy, designs, and methods intersect when one uses one of these approaches. I

 

review different philosophical stances; advanced types of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed

 

methods designs; and then discuss the methods associated with each design. I also consider the

 

factors that go into the choice of an approach to research. Thus, this chapter should help proposal

 

developers decide whether a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods approach is suitable for their

 

proposed studies.

 

Chapter 2. Review of the Literature

 

It is important to extensively review the literature on your topic before you design your proposal.

 

Thus, you need to begin with a researchable topic and then explore the literature using the steps

 

advanced in this chapter. This calls for setting a priority for reviewing the literature, drawing a visual

 

map of studies that relate to your topic, writing good abstracts, employing skills learned about using

 

style manuals, and defining key terms. This chapter should help proposal developers thoughtfully

 

consider relevant literature on their topics and start compiling and writing literature reviews for

 

proposals.

 

Chapter 3. The Use of Theory

 

Theories serve different purposes in the three approaches inquiry. In quantitative research, they

 

provide a proposed explanation for the relationship among variables being tested by the investigator.

 

In qualitative research, they may often serve as a lens for the inquiry or they may be generated during

 

the study. In mixed methods studies, researchers employ them in many ways, including those

 

associated with quantitative and qualitative approaches. This chapter helps proposal developers

 

consider and plan how theory might be incorporated into their studies.

 

Chapter 4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations

 

It is helpful to have an overall outline of the topics to be included in a proposal before you begin

 

writing. Thus, this chapter begins with different outlines for writing proposals. The outlines can be

 

used as models depending on whether your proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed

 

methods. Then I convey several ideas about the actual writing of the proposal, such as developing a

 

habit of writing, and grammar ideas that have been helpful to m...

 


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